OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 29, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 2011
  • pp: 265–277

Offline Impairment-Aware RWA and Regenerator Placement in Translucent Optical Networks

Belen Garcia-Manrubia, Pablo Pavon-Marino, Ramon Aparicio-Pardo, Mirosław Klinkowski, and Davide Careglio

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 29, Issue 3, pp. 265-277 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (873 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


In translucent optical networks, the physical layer impairments degrading the optical signal are considered in the network planning. In this paper, we investigate the offline problem of routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) and regenerator placement (RP) in translucent networks, minimizing the lightpath blocking and regenerator equipment cost. We address two variants of the problem, which correspond to two different types of quality of transmission (QoT) estimators, called linear and nonlinear. In a nonlinear QoT, nonlinear impairments like crosstalk or cross-phase modulation, which account for the interferences from neighboring lightpaths in the network are explicitly computed. Then, the QoT estimated for a lightpath depends on the routes of other lightpaths in the network. In the linear QoT, the effects of the nonlinear impairments are overestimated and accumulated to the rest of the impairments in the QoT calculation. As a result, the QoT estimation of a lightpath solely depends on its route.For the linear case, we formulate an optimal integer linear programming model of the problem, to the best of the authors' knowledge, for the first time in the literature. Its simplicity allows us to test it for small- and medium-size networks. Also, we propose two heuristic methods, namely, lightpath segmentation and three-step, and a tight lower bound for the regenerator equipment cost. For the nonlinear QoT case, we propose a new heuristic called iterative RP (IRP). Both the IRP and three-step algorithms are designed to guarantee that no lightpath blocking is produced by signal degradation. This is a relevant difference with respect to earlier proposals. The performance and the scalability of our proposals are then investigated by carrying out extensive tests. Results reveal that the solutions obtained by the heuristic algorithms are optimal or close to optimal, and outperform the earlier proposals in the literature.

© 2010 IEEE

Belen Garcia-Manrubia, Pablo Pavon-Marino, Ramon Aparicio-Pardo, Mirosław Klinkowski, and Davide Careglio, "Offline Impairment-Aware RWA and Regenerator Placement in Translucent Optical Networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 265-277 (2011)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, J. M. Simmons, "Optical networking: Past, present, and future," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1104-1118 (2008).
  2. B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Transparent versus opaque versus translucent wavelength-routed optical networks," OFC (1999) pp. 59-61.
  3. G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Translucent optical networks: The way forward," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 48-54 (2007).
  4. S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Solé Pareta, I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comp. Netw. 53, 926-944 (2009).
  5. D. C. Kilper, "Optical performance monitoring," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 293-304 (2004).
  6. T. Tsuritani, "Optical path computation element interworking with network management system for transparent mesh networks," OFC/NFOEC San DiegoCA (2008).
  7. P. Pavon-Mariño, "Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks," OSA/IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1763-1775 (2009).
  8. A. Morea, N. Brogard, F. Leplingard, J. C. Antona, T. Zami, B. Lavigne, D. Bayart, "QoT function and A* routing an optimized combination for connection search in translucent networks," J. Opt, Netw. 7, 42-61 (2008).
  9. M. Yannuzzi, M. Quagliotti, G. Maier, E. Marin-Tordera, X. Masip-Bruin, S. Sanchez-Lopez, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Erangoli, G. Tamiri, "Performance of translucent optical networks under dynamic traffic and uncertain physical-layer information," IFIP/IEEE ONDM (2009) pp. 1-6.
  10. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communications Systems (Wiley, 2002) pp. 490-497.
  11. B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1713-1723 (1999).
  12. V. T. Cartaxo, "Cross-phase modulation in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 178-190 (1999).
  13. S. Pachnicke, J. Reichert, S. Spälter, E. Voges, "Fast analytical assessment of the signal quality in transparent optical networks," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 815-824 (2006).
  14. W. Zeiler, F. Di Pasquale, P. Bayvel, J. E. Midwinter, "Modelling of four-wave mixing and gain peaking in amplified WDM optical communication systems and networks," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1933-1942 (1996).
  15. K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannels transmissions," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1996).
  16. C. D. Cantrell, "Transparent optical metropolitan-area networks," 16th Annu. Meeting IEEE/Laser Electro Opt. Soc. (2003) pp. 608-609.
  17. I. Chlamtac, A. Farago, T. Zhang, "Lightpath (wavelength) routing in large WDM networks," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 14, 909-913 (1996).
  18. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, "Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
  19. A. A. M. Saleh, "Islands of transparency—An emerging reality in multiwave optical networking," 11th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (1998) pp. 36.
  20. A. M. Saleh, "Transparent optical networking in backbone networks," OFC (2000) pp. 62-64.
  21. X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Dynamic routing in translucent WDM optical networks: The intra-domain case," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 955-971 (2005).
  22. S.-W. Kim, S.-W. Seo, S. C. Kim, "Regenerator placement algorithms for connection establishment in all-optical networks," Globecom (2000) pp. 1205-1209.
  23. B. Ramamurthy, S. Yaragorla, X. Yang, "Translucent optical WDM networks for the next-generation backbone networks," Globecom (2001) pp. 60-64.
  24. X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Sparse regeneration in a translucent WDM optical network," APOC BeijingChina (2001).
  25. M. A. Ezzahdi, S. A. Zahr, M. Koubaa, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, "LERP: A quality of transmission dependent heuristic for routing and wavelength assignment in hybrid WDM networks," ICCCN (2006) pp. 125-136.
  26. Y. Ye, T. Y. Chai, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, "Algorithms for the design of WDM translucent optical networks," Opt. Exp. 11, 2917-2926 (2003).
  27. S. Al Zahr, M. Gagnaire, N. Puech, "Impact of wavelength assignment strategies on hybrid WDM network planning," 6th DRCN La RochelleFrance (2007).
  28. S. Al Zahr, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, "Gain equalization versus electrical regeneration tradeoffs in hybrid WDM networks," 9th ConTEL ZagrebCroatia (2007).
  29. K. Manousakis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Kamitsas, I. Tomkos, E. A. Varvarigos, "Offline impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in translucent WDM optical networks," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1866-1877 (2009).
  30. S. Pachnicke, T. Paschenda, P. M. Krummrich, "Physical impairment based regenerator placement and routing in translucent optical networks," OFC/NFOEC San DiegoCA (2008).
  31. G. Shen, W. D. Grover, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, "Sparse placement of electronic switching nodes for low blocking in translucent optical networks," J. Opt. Netw. 1, 424-441 (2002).
  32. X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing," Phot. Netw. Commun. 10, 39-50 (2005).
  33. E. Marín-Tordera, "The effects of optimized regenerator allocation in translucent networks under inaccurate physical information," IEEE/IFIP ONDM (2010) pp. 1-6.
  34. M. S. Savasini, P. Monti, M. Tacca, A. Fumagalli, H. Waldman, "Regenerator placement with guaranteed connectivity in optical networks," IEEE ONDM AthensGreece (2007).
  35. S. Pachnicke, T. Paschenda, P. Krummrich, "Assessment of a constraint based routing algorithm for translucent 10 Gb/s DWDM networks considering fiber nonlinearities," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 365-377 (2008).
  36. S. Chen, S. Raghavan, "The regenerator location problem," Working Paper, Smith School of Business University of Maryland (2006).
  37. A. Sen, S. Murthy, S. Bandyopadhyay, "On sparse placement of regenerator nodes in translucent optical networks," Globecom New OrleansLA (2008).
  38. M. Youssef, S. Al Zahr, M. Gagnaire, "Cross optimization for RWA and regenerator placement in translucent WDM networks," IFIP/IEEE ONDM (2010) pp. 1-6.
  39. A. N. Patel, Ch. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, T. Naito, "Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks," IFIP/IEEE ONDM (2010) pp. 1-6.
  40. S. D. Personick, "Receiver design for digital fiber optic communication systems, I," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 843-874 (1973).
  41. L. Kleinrock, Queueing Systems: Computer Applications (Wiley, 1976).
  42. P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, G. Moreno-Muñoz, J. Garcia-Haro, J. Veiga-Gontan, "MatPlanWDM: An educational tool for network planning in wavelength-routing networks," IFIP ONDM (2007) pp. 58-67.
  43. K. Holmström, A. O. Göran, M. M. Edvall, User's Guide for TOMLAB/CPLEX v11.2 (2009).
  44. Internet 2 Global Research Network Operations Center http://www.abilene.iu.edu/.
  45. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, "Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 14, 840-851 (1996).
  46. SNDlib 1.0-Survivable Network Design Data Library http://sndlib.zib.de (2005).
  47. "Phosphorus -deliverable D 5.3.," Grid Job Routing Algorithms http://www.ist-phosphorus.eu/files/deliverables/Phosphorus-deliverable-D5.3.pdf.
  48. P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, J. Fernandez-Palacios, O. Gonzalez, F. Martin, J. Garcia-Haro, "Balancing multifibre and wavelength converter cost in wavelength routing networks," 34th ECOC (2008) pp. 185-186.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited