OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 30, Iss. 18 — Sep. 15, 2012
  • pp: 2948–2954

Spatial Pulse Position Modulation for Optical Communications

Wasiu O. Popoola, Enrique Poves, and Harald Haas

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 30, Issue 18, pp. 2948-2954 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1232 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


This paper proposes a low complexity spatial modulation (SM) scheme that combines spatial shift keying (SSK) with pulse position modulation (PPM) for optical wireless communication systems. SM is a multi-transmitter technique for achieving increased data rate over the traditional on-off keying (OOK) and PPM signalling methods. Analysis of the error performance of the system in the presence of noise is presented and validated via simulations. There is a perfect agreement between the simulation and the theoretical analysis for the case of <i>M</i> = 2 bits/symbol and other values of <i>M</i> at symbol error rate (SER) of less than 10<sup>-2</sup>. At higher SER values the analytical prediction is about 1.2 dB more than that of the simulation. We also show the energy efficiency/bandwidth requirement trade-off involved when determining the system parameters such as the number of transmitters and the number of bits per symbol <i>M</i>. Using fewer transmitters improves the energy efficiency but requires more bandwidth. Moreover, the error performance of SPPM is dictated by both the individual channel gains of the multiple transmitters and the difference between these channel gains or path losses. Hence, distinct channel gains are a prerequisite in spatial modulation. An experimental set up to measure and show the dependence of the channel gains on the relative position of the transmitter to the receiver is also presented. These measured channel parameters are then used to evaluate the system error performance. The performance of the SPPM is also compared, in terms of energy and spectral efficiencies, with the classical SSK and repetition coded (RC) schemes in which the multiple transmitters are used to transmit the same data simultaneously. The results show the SPPM as a multi-transmitter signalling scheme that combines the energy efficiency of the PPM with the high spectral efficiency of the SSK.

© 2012 IEEE

Wasiu O. Popoola, Enrique Poves, and Harald Haas, "Spatial Pulse Position Modulation for Optical Communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2948-2954 (2012)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. R. Mesleh, Spatial Modulation: A Spatial Multiplexing Technique for Efficient Wireless Data Transmission Ph.D. dissertation Jacobs UniversityBremenGermany (2007).
  2. R. Mesleh, H. Haas, S. Sinanović, C. W. Ahn, S. Yun, "Spatial modulation," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 57, 2228-2241 (2008).
  3. M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, P. M. Grant, "Spatial modulation for multiple-antenna wireless systems: A survey," IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 182-191 (2011).
  4. J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).
  5. O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (2005) pp. 199-204.
  6. J. Armstrong, A. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).
  7. R. Mesleh, H. Haas, C. W. Ahn, S. Yun, "Spatial modulation—A new low complexity spectral efficiency enhancing technique," Proc. IEEE CHINACOM (2006) pp. 1-5.
  8. J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, L. Szczecinski, "Spatial modulation: Optimal detection and performance analysis," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 545-547 (2008).
  9. D. Dardari, V. Tralli, A. Vaccari, "A theoretical characterization of nonlinear distortion effects in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 1755-1764 (2000).
  10. H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, "Impact of LED nonlinearities on optical wireless OFDM systems," Proc. 2010 IEEE 21st Int. Symp. PIMRC (2010) pp. 634-638.
  11. H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, "Non-linearity effects and predistortion in optical OFDM wireless transmission using LEDs," Proc. IJUWBCS 1, 143-150 (2009).
  12. H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, "A study of LED nonlinearity effects on optical wireless transmission using OFDM," Proc. WOCN (2009).
  13. R. Mesleh, R. Mehmood, H. Elgala, H. Haas, "Indoor MIMO optical wireless communication using spatial modulation," Proc. IEEE ICC (2010) pp. 1-5.
  14. R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, H. Haas, "Optical spatial modulation," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 234-244 (2011) ISSN: 1943-0620.
  15. T. Fath, M. D. Renzo, H. Haas, "On the performance of space shift keying for optical wireless communications," Proc. IEEE Globecom 2010 (2010) pp. 990-994.
  16. T. Fath, H. Haas, M. Di Renzo, R. Mesleh, "Spatial modulation applied to optical wireless communications in indoor LOS environments," Proc. GLOBECOM (2011) pp. 1-5.
  17. M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, "Improving the performance of space shift keying (SSK) modulation via opportunistic power allocation," IEEE Commun. Lett. 14, 500-502 (2010).
  18. J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, L. Szczecinski, A. Ceron, "Space shift keying modulation for MIMO channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8, 3692-3703 (2009).
  19. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2000).
  20. J. Grubor, S. Randel, K. Langer, J. Walewski, "Bandwidth efficient indoor optical wireless communications with white light emitting diodes," Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Commun. Syst., Networks Digital Signal Process. (2008) pp. 165-169.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited