OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 30, Iss. 20 — Oct. 15, 2012
  • pp: 3241–3246

GaN-Based LEDs With Contact-Transferred and Mask-Embedded Lithography and In-Situ N2 Treatments

Shih-Chang Shei and Chi-Fu Yu

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 30, Issue 20, pp. 3241-3246 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (906 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


The authors report that GaN-based LEDs with contact-transferred and mask-embedded lithography (CMEL) and in-situ N2 treatments were fabricated. From the experiment results, it can be seen clearly that the characteristic of ITO contacts on the etched p-GaN with the N2 treatment-20 sccm shows a near ohmic behavior. With 20 mA current injection, it was found that forward voltage and output power were 3.09 V and 5.16 mW for the LED with CMEL-400 nm-treatment. It was also found that we can achieve 20.5% enhancement for the LED with CMEL-400 nm and do not degrade the electrical properties of the GaN-based LEDs. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed LED was good.

© 2012 IEEE

Shih-Chang Shei and Chi-Fu Yu, "GaN-Based LEDs With Contact-Transferred and Mask-Embedded Lithography and In-Situ N2 Treatments," J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3241-3246 (2012)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).
  2. C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "InGaN/GaN light -emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L21-L23 (2003).
  3. C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, "Nitride based power chip with indium-tin-oxide p-contact and Al back-side reflector," J. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2462-2464 (2005).
  4. D. S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, T. Y. Seong, "Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes," J. Appl. Phys. 98, (2005) Art. ID 076107.
  5. S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, "Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013504-1-013504-3 (2007).
  6. K. J. Byeon, E. J. Hong, H. Park, K. Y. Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, J. Jhin, C. H. Hong, H. G. Kim, H. Lee, "Enhancement of the photon extraction of green and blue LEDs by patterning the indium tin oxide top layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105004 (2009).
  7. C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. F. T. Wang, W. Y. Yeh, J. Y. Chi, "Anisotropy of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123117 (2007).
  8. I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, "Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392-3394 (2001).
  9. C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, S. J. Cheng, "Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 081108.
  10. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nonometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).
  11. M. D. Stewart, S. C. Johnson, S. V. Sreenivasan, D. J. Resnick, C. G. Willson, "Nanofabrication with step and flash imprint lithography," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 4, (2005) Art. ID 0011002.
  12. D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, "Fabrication of plannar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623-1625 (2004).
  13. Y. L. Loo, R. L. Willett, K. W. Baldwin, J. A. Rogers, "Additive nanoscale patterning of metal films with a stamp and a surface chemistry mediated transfer process: Applications in plastic electronis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 562-564 (2002).
  14. H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, S. C. Wang, "Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nano-imprint lithography," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009) Art. ID 085008.
  15. C. Y. Yeh, W. C. Lai, T. H. Hsueh, Y. Y. Yang, J. K. Sheu, S. P. Ringer, B. Gault, "Light output improvement of oxide-textured InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by bias-assisted photoelectrochemical oxidation with imprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 718-720 (2009).
  16. T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, P. M. Petroff, "Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 023101.
  17. H. M. Lo, Y. T. Hsieh, S. C. Shei, Y. C. Lee, X. F. Zeng, W. Y. Weng, N. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, "AlGaInP LEDs prepared by contact-transferred and mask-embedded lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1834-1839 (2010).
  18. S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, "Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, (2011) Art. ID 041203.
  19. T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, G. Y. Jung, "Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 171114.
  20. S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, A. Ramam, E. K. Sia, J. S. Pan, R. Lim, G. Yu, Z. X. Shen, "Electronic and vibronic properties of Mg-doped GaN: The influence of etching and annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3398-3400 (2002).
  21. S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, N. M. Park, H. S. Kim, I. H. Lee, S. J. Park, "Reactivation of Mg acceptor in Mg-doped GaN by nitrogen plasma treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3079-3081 (2000).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited