## OFDM for Next-Generation Optical Access Networks

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 30, Issue 4, pp. 384-398 (2012)

Acrobat PDF (1407 KB)

### Abstract

In this tutorial overview, the principles, advantages, challenges, and practical requirements of optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based optical access are presented, with an emphasis on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) for application in next-generation passive optical networks (PON). General OFDM principles, including orthogonality, cyclic prefix use, frequency-domain equalization, and multiuser OFDMA are summarized, followed by an overview of various optical OFDM(A) transceiver architectures for next-generation PON. Functional requirements are outlined for high-speed digital signal processors (DSP) and data converters in OFDMA-PON. A techno-economic outlook for such a “software-defined,” DSP-based optical access platform is also provided.

© 2011 IEEE

**Citation**

Neda Cvijetic, "OFDM for Next-Generation Optical Access Networks," J. Lightwave Technol. **30**, 384-398 (2012)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-30-4-384

Sort: Year | Journal | Reset

### References

- J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).
- I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," Opt. Exp. 14, 3767-3775 (2006).
- N. Cvijetic, L. Xu, T. Wang, "Adaptive PMD compensation using OFDM in long-haul 10 Gb/s DWDM systems," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) Paper OTuA5.
- S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).
- A. J. Lowery, L. Du, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP39.
- W. Shieh, H. Bao, Y. Tang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design," Opt. Exp. 16, 841-859 (2008).
- B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of electronic dispersion compensation for long haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).
- J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "High-speed transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over multimode fibers using directly modulated DFBs," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 429-441 (2006).
- A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).
- D. Qian, J. Hu, J. Yu, P. N. Ji, L. Xu, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, T. Kusano, "Experimental demonstration of a novel OFDM-A based 10 Gb/s PON architecture," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Conf. BerlinGermany (2007) Paper 5.4.2.
- T. Duong, N. Genay, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Pizzinat, R. Brenot, "Experimental demonstration of 10 Gbit/s upstream transmission by remote modulation of 1 GHz RSOA using adaptively modulated optical OFDM for WDM-PON single fiber architecture," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Conf. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Th. 3.F. 1.
- Y. K. Huang, D. Qian, R. E. Saperstein, P. N. Ji, N. Cvijetic, L. Xu, T. Wang, "Dual-polarization 2$\,\times\,$2 IFFT/FFT optical signal processing for 100-Gb/s QPSK-PDM all-optical OFDM," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OTuM4.
- N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Huang, D. Qian, T. Wang, "1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90 km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPD7.
- D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, T. Wang, "101.7-Tb/s (370$\,\times\,$294-Gb/s) PDM-128QAM-OFDM transmission over 3$\,\times\,$55-km SSMF using pilot-based phase noise mitigation," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPB5.
- D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkis, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "26 Tbit ${\rm s}^{-1}$ line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing," Nature Photon. 5, 364-371 (2011).
- R. W. Chang, "High-speed multichannel data transmission with bandlimited orthogonal signals," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 45, 1775-1796 (1966).
- S. B. Weinstein, "The history of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 26-35 (2009).
- Y. H. Ma, P. L. So, E. Gunawan, "Performance analysis of OFDM systems for broadband power line communications under impulsive noise and multipath effects," IEEE Trans. Power Del. 20, 674-682 (2005).
- C. Stevenson, G. Chouinard, Z. Lei, H. Wendong, S. Shellhammer, W. Caldwell, "IEEE 802.22: The first cognitive radio wireless regional area network standard," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 130-138 (2009).
- O. Gonzalez, S. Rodriguez, R. Perez-Jimenez, B. R. Mendoza, F. Delgado, "Adaptive OFDM system for multi-user communications over the indoor wireless optical channel," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectronics 153, 139-144 (2006).
- N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, T. Wang, "10 Gb/s free-space optical transmission using OFDM," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OThD2.
- J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, "White light wireless transmission at $200^{+}$ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1511-1513 (2009).
- X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, P. S. Spencer, K. A. Shore, "Optimization of adaptively modulated optical OFDM modems for multimode fiber-based local area networks," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 198-214 (2008).
- "Cisco® Visual Networking Index (VNI)," Entering the Zettabyte Era White Paper (2011).
- M. Cvijetic, Optical Transmission Systems Engineering (Artech House, 2004).
- E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Increasing optical fiber transmission capacity beyond next-generation systems," Proc. IEEE LEOS AcapulcoMexico Paper WX1.
- R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, B. Goebel, "Capacity limits of optical fiber networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662-701 (2010).
- W. Shieh, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 16, 6378-6386 (2008).
- T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, B. Basch, S. Kotrla, W. Lee, T. Tajima, K. Fukuchi, M. Cvijetic, J. Sugg, Y. Ma, B. Turner, C. Cole, C. Urricariet, "End-to-end native IP data 100 G single carrier real time DSP coherent detection transport over 1520-km field deployed fiber," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010).
- M. Birk, P. Gerard, R. Curto, L. Nelson, X. Zhou, P. Magill, T. J. Schmidt, C. Malouin, B. Zhang, E. Ibragimov, S. Khatana, M. Glavanovic, R. Lofland, R. Marcoccia, G. Nicholl, M. Nowell, F. Forghieri, "Field trial of a real-time, single wavelength, coherent 100 Gbit/s PM-QPSK channel upgrade of an installed 1800 km link," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPD1.
- OIF 100 G Ultra Long Haul DWDM Framework Document (2009).
- S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, K. Forozesh, S. Randel, D. van den Borne, H. Tanaka, "Optical OFDM: A hype or is it for real?," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Mo.3.E.3.
- K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, C. Laperle, "100 G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 62-69 (2010).
- N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, "100 Gb/s optical access based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70-77 (2010).
- N. Yoshimoto, "The role of advanced EPON systems and their related technologies for sustainable growth of telecom industry," Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. ShanghaiChina (2010).
- D. Divanc, G. Li, H. Liu, "Computationally efficient bandwidth allocation and power control for OFDMA," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 1150-1158 (2003).
- D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, E. Weis, "Opportunities for next-generation optical access," IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 17-24 (2011).
- J. Kani, "Next-generation PONs: An operator's view," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 5.7.4.
- P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, "Optical access beyond 10 Gb/s PON," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Tu.B.3.1.
- P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, L. Spiekman, "Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPD6.
- S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, E. Gottwald, D. W. Smith, A. Poustie, "Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPD4.
- P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. M. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. G. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, P. D. Townsend, "A 135-km 8192-split carrier distributed DWDM-TDMA PON with 2$\,\times\,$32$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s capacity," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 463-474 (2011).
- A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review," J. Opt. Netw. 4, 737-758 (2005).
- K. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON—Solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).
- N. Cvijetic, "OFDM for next-generation optical access networks," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Tutorial OMG1.
- S. G. Wilson, Digital Modulation and Coding (Prentice-Hall, 1995).
- A. J. Lowery, "Fiber nonlinearity pre- and post-compensation for long-haul optical links using OFDM," Opt. Exp. 15, 12965-12970 (2007).
- D. Qian, J. Yu, J. Hu, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, "11.5-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 640 km SSMF using directly modulated laser," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Conf. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Mo.3.E.4.
- W.-R. Peng, X. Wu, V. R. Arbab, B. Shamee, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Experimental demonstration of 340 km SSMF transmission using a virtual single sideband OFDM signal that employs carrier suppressed and iterative detection techniques," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OMU1.
- N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, D. Qian, "System outage probability due to PMD in high-speed optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2118-2127 (2008).
- M. Cvijetic, Coherent and Nonlinear Lightwave Communications (Artech House, 1996).
- N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y.-K.. Huang, M. Cvijetic, T. Wang, "1.92Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100km SSMF and 1:64 passive split," Opt. Exp. 19, 24540-24545 (2011).
- Z. Wang, Y.-K. Wang, E. Ip, P. R. Prucnal, T. Wang, "Performance investigation of polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM using all-optical OFDM transmission and digital coherent detection," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMS5.
- S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper PD2.6.
- X. Z. Qiu, C. Mélange, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, J. Vandewege, "Evolution of burst mode receivers," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Conf. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 7.5.1.
- W. Wei, T. Wang, D. Qian, J. Hu, "MAC protocols for optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based passive optical networks," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper JWA82.
- J. Zhang, T. Wang, N. Ansari, "An efficient MAC protocol for asynchronous ONUs in OFDMA PONs," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper JWA071.
- Y. M. Lin, "Demonstration and design of high spectral efficiency 4Gb/s OFDM system in passive optical networks," Proc. IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. (2007).
- D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 484-493 (2010).
- M. Morelli, C.-C. J. Kuo, M.-O. Pun, "Synchronization techniques for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA): A tutorial review," Proc. IEEE 95, 1394-1427 (2007).
- R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration and optimisation of a synchronous clock recovery technique for real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 25 km SSMF," Opt. Exp. 19, 2831-2845 (2011).
- D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y. K. Huang, J. Yu, T. Wang, "100 km long reach upstream 36 Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Conf. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 8.5.1.
- D. Qian, J. Hu, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, "10 Gb/s OFDMA-PON for delivery of heterogeneous services," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OWH4.
- N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, T. Wang, "Orthogonal frequency division multiple access PON (OFDMA-PON) for colorless upstream transmission beyond 10 Gb/s," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 781-790 (2010).
- D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1265-1267 (2009).
- C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, S. Chi, "Rayleigh backscattering performance of OFDM-QAM in carrier distributed passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1848-1850 (2008).
- D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y. K. Huang, J. Hu, T. Wang, "Single-wavelength 108 Gb/s upstream OFDMA-PON transmission," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Conf. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper PD3.3.
- N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, T. Wang, "44-Gb/s/$\lambda$, upstream OFDMA-PON transmission with polarization-insensitive source-free ONUs," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OTuO2.
- B. Charbonnier, N. Brochier, P. Chanclou, "Reflective polarisation independent Mach–Zehnder modulator for FDMA/OFDMA PON," IEEE Electron. Lett. 46, 1682-1683 (2010).
- X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, "Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties," Opt. Exp. 17, 14574-14585 (2009).
- R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25 Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25 km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems," Opt. Exp. 18, 5541-5555 (2010).
- E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, Y. Hong, C. Shu, J. M. Tang, "Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 2979-2988 (2011).
- Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, R. I. Killey, "Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing," Opt. Exp. 17, 17658-17668 (2009).
- B. Inan, O. Karakaya, P. Kainzmaier, S. Adhikari, S. Calabro, V. Sleiffer, N. Hanik, S. L. Jansen, "Realization of a 23.9 Gb/s real time optical-OFDM transmitter with a 1024 point IFFT," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMS2.
- F. Buchali, R. Dischler, A. Klekamp, M. Bernhard, "On a real-time 12.1 Gb/s OFDM transmitter architecture," OSA Signal Process. Photon. Commun. KarlsruheGermany (2010) Paper SPTuC3, (SPPCom).
- R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s," Opt. Exp. 19, 12740-12749 (2011).
- D. Qian, T. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "41.25 Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPD9.
- L. Zhang, X. Xin, B. Liu, J. Yu, Q. Zhang, "A novel ECDM-OFDM-PON architecture for next-generation optical access network," Opt. Exp. 18, 18347-18353 (2010).
- L. Zhang, X. Xin, B. Liu, Y. Wang, "Secure OFDM PON based on chaos scrambling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 998-1000 (2011).
- Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, M. C. Yuang, S. S. W. Lee, J. J. Chen, S.-Y. Chen, Y.-M. Huang, J.-L. Shih, C.-H. Hsu, "A novel optical access network architecture supporting seamless integration of RoF and OFDMA signals," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Conf. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper P6.13.
- K. Kanonakis, I. Tomkos, T. Pfeiffer, J. Prat, P. Kourtessis, "ACCORDANCE: A novel OFDMA-PON paradigm for ultrahigh capacity converged wireline-wireless access networks," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. MunichGermany (2010) Paper Tu.A1.2.
- D. Hsu, C. Wei, H. Y. Chen, J. Chen, M. Yuang, S. Lin, W. Li, "2.1-Tb/s$\,\times\,$km OFDM long-reach PON transmission using a cost-effective electro-absorption modulator," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMG2.
- X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, "Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 187-196 (2011).
- S. Kim, H. Kimura, H. Hadama, "Cyclic prefix free 10-Gb/s OFDM for a DML-based long-reach optical access using joint time and frequency domain equalization algorithm," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OTuK4.
- N. Cvijetic, N. Prasad, D. Qian, J. Howard, T. Wang, "Computationally-efficient DSP-based MIMO equalization for OSNR gains in 40 Gb/s OFDMA-PON," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OTuK6.
- T. N. Duong, N. Genay, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, J. C. Simon, "Adaptive loading algorithm implemented in AMOOFDM for NG-PON system integrating cost-effective and low-bandwidth optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 790-792 (2009).
- E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).
- I. Dedic, "High-speed CMOS DSP and data converters," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OTuN1.
- T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, A. Bielik, J. Rupeter, M. Möller, "DA and AD converters in SiGe technology: Speed and resolution for lltra high data rate applications," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Th.10.A.6.
- D. Piehler, "Next-generation components for optical access networks," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThK5.
- N. Cvijetic, "The five W's of OFDM for optical access: What, why, where, when and how?," OSA Access Net. In-House Commun. Conf. TorontoONCanada (2011) Paper AMC1.
- N. Cvijetic, N. Prasad, M. Cvijetic, T. Wang, "Efficient and robust MIMO DSP equalization in POLMUX-OFDM transmission with direct detection," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2011).
- R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tangs, "Real-time experimental demonstration of a versatile optical OFDM symbol synchronization technique using low-power DC offset signaling," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2011).

## Cited By |

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article | Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.