OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Vol. 30, Iss. 7 — Apr. 1, 2012
  • pp: 938–943

Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixture Integrated Into Optical Waveguides

Xuesong Hu, Oliver Hadeler, and Harry J. Coles

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 30, Issue 7, pp. 938-943 (2012)


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1074 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations
  • Export Citation/Save Click for help

Abstract

We report an on-chip integrated ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) waveguide structure suitable for telecommunication applications. Single gaps with different widths of 5, 10, and 20 μm inside individual silica waveguides were filled with an FLC mixture. The waveguide devices operate as a binary switch or an attenuator in a temperature range from 30 °C to 60 °C. The FLC mixture exhibited a good alignment quality in these gaps without alignment layers. A good extinction ratio of up to 33.9 dB and a low insertion loss of <4.3 dB at λ = 1550 nm were observed. Switching times of <100 μs were obtained for the low electric fields applied in this experiment.

© 2012 IEEE

Citation
Xuesong Hu, Oliver Hadeler, and Harry J. Coles, "Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixture Integrated Into Optical Waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 938-943 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-30-7-938


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. D. J. Channin, "Optical waveguide modulation using nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 365-366 (1973).
  2. C. Hu, J. R. Whinnery, "Losses of a nematic liquid-crystal optical waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 1424-1432 (1974).
  3. J. R. Whinnery, C. Hu, Y. S. Kwon, "Liquid-crystal waveguides for integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 262-267 (1977).
  4. Y. Okamura, K. Kitatani, S. Yamamoto, "Low-voltage driving in nematic liquid crystal overlayered waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 360-363 (1986).
  5. S. Muto, T. Nagata, K. Asai, H. Ashizawa, K. Arii, "Optical stabilizer and directional coupler switch using polymer thin film waveguides with liquid crystal clad," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1724-1726 (1990).
  6. K. Hirabayashi, C. Amano, "Liquid-crystal polarization controller arrays on planar waveguide circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 504-506 (2002).
  7. K. Hirabayashi, C. Amano, "Liquid-crystal polarization stabilizers on fiber arrays," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2162-2171 (2003).
  8. A. Fratalocchi, R. Asquini, G. Assanto, "Integrated electro-optic switch in liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 13, 32-37 (2005).
  9. A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211108-1-211108-3 (2005).
  10. D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, A. d'Alessandro, "A switchable liquid-crystal optical channel waveguide on silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 762-768 (2010).
  11. J. L. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, "Engineering liquid crystal for optimal uses in optical communication environments," Liq. Cryst. 31, 241-270 (2004).
  12. X. Hu, O. Hadeler, H. J. Coles, "High optical contrast liquid crystal switch and analogue response attenuator at 1550 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1655-1657 (2011).
  13. N. A. Clark, M. A. Handschy, "Surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal electro-optic waveguide switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1852-1854 (1990).
  14. M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, T. Hatai, K. Yoshino, "Fast optical switching in polymer waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L843-L845 (1990).
  15. K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, A. Tagawa, T. Hatai, K. Asada, Y. Sadohara, K. Daido, Y. Ohmori, "Electro-optic switching in polymer waveguide using surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 163-169 (1991).
  16. M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, Y. Uchiyama, M. Utsumi, K. Yoshino, "Electrooptic modulation in the optical waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3189-3192 (1992).
  17. M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, Y. Uchiyama, M. Utsumi, K. Yoshino, "Linear optical switching in a FLC/waveguide composite device," Liq. Cryst. 14, 381-387 (1993).
  18. Y. Uchiyama, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, "Leaky mode operation in FLC/waveguide modulator," Ferroelectrics 149, 217-228 (1993).
  19. D. S. Hermann, F. De Marco, G. Scalia, L. Sirleto, G. C. Righini, M. Lindgren, G. Abbate, "Electro-optic modulation of light by a planar waveguide based on ferroelectric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 352, 379-388 (2000).
  20. D. B. Walker, E. N. Glytsis, T. K. Gaylord, "Ferroelectric liquid-crystal waveguide modulation based on a switchable uniaxial-uniaxial interface," Appl. Opt. 35, 3016-3030 (1996).
  21. G. Scalia, D. S. Hermann, G. Abbate, L. Komitov, P. Mormile, G. C. Righini, L. Sirleto, "Integrated electro-optic switch based on a ferroelectric liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 321-335 (1998).
  22. D. S. Hermann, G. Scalia, C. Pitois, F. De Marco, K. D'havé, G. Abbate, M. Lindgren, A. Hult, "Novel passive polymer waveguides integrated with electro-optically active ferroelectric liquid crystals," Opt. Eng. 40, 2188-2198 (2001).
  23. S. T. Lagerwall, Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 1999).
  24. S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, "Electroclinic effect at the A-C phase change in a chiral smectic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848-851 (1977).
  25. S.-D. Lee, J. S. Patel, "Nonlinear behavior of the field-induced molecular tilt near the smectic A-C* transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1653-1655 (1989).
  26. J. V. DeGroot, T. V. Clapp, J. P. Hannington, K. Su, "Hybrid integration of silicone PDLC into a planar light circuit," Proc. SPIE Nanocryst. Organic Hybrid Nanomater. (2003) pp. 163-170.
  27. X. Hu, Low molar mass organosiloxane ferroelectric liquid crystals for telecommunication applications Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Eng. Cambridge Univ.CambridgeU.K. (2010).
  28. J. Newton, H. J. Coles, H. Owen, P. Hodge, "A new series of low molar mass ferroelectric organosiloxanes with unusual electro-optic properties," Ferroelectrics 148, 379-387 (1993).
  29. J. Newton, H. J. Coles, P. Hodge, J. P. Hanningtonn, "Synthesis and properties of low molar mass liquid crystalline siloxane derivatives," J. Mater. Chem. 4, 869-874 (1994).
  30. M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, "Stroboscopic microscopy of fast electro-optic switching in ferroelectric smectic C liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 39-41 (1982).
  31. H. Orihara, Y. Ishibashi, "Switching characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystal DOBAMBC," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1274-1277 (1984).
  32. H. Fujikake, T. Kuki, H. Kamoda, F. Sato, T. Nomoto, "Voltage-variable microwave delay line using ferroelectric liquid crystal with aligned submicron polymer fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1815-1817 (2003).
  33. H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (R. R. Donnelley, 1989).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited