OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 31, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2013
  • pp: 125–133

Push-Pull Defragmentation Without Traffic Disruption in Flexible Grid Optical Networks

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, N. Sambo, L. Potì, and P. Castoldi

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 1, pp. 125-133 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1428 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


In flexi-grid optical networks, fragmentation of spectrum resources may significantly affect the overall network efficiency. Effective techniques for defragmentation (i.e., re-optimization) are then required to limit the wasting of spectrum resources. However, current defragmentation techniques can only be implemented thanks to the presence of additional resources, such as spare expensive transponders. In this study, we propose, discuss and evaluate a novel defragmentation technique called push-pull. The technique is based on dynamic lightpath frequency retuning upon proper reconfiguration of allocated spectrum resources. It does not require additional transponders and does not determine traffic disruption. All the relevant technological limitations that may affect the push-pull applicability are discussed in the context of both optically-amplified direct and coherent detection systems. The technique is then successfully demonstrated in two different flexi-grid network testbeds, reproducing the two aforementioned scenarios. In particular, the reoptimization of a 10 Gb/s OOK lightpath is safely completed in few seconds (mainly due just to node configuration latencies) without experiencing any traffic disruption. Similarly, the push-pull is successfully performed on a 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK lightpath, providing no traffic disruption.

© 2012 IEEE

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, N. Sambo, L. Potì, and P. Castoldi, "Push-Pull Defragmentation Without Traffic Disruption in Flexible Grid Optical Networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 125-133 (2013)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, "Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC Conf. (2012).
  2. F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, G. Meloni, N. Sambo, L. Poti, P. Castoldi, "Experimenting push-pull defragmentation in flexible optical networks with direct detection," Proc. Globecom Conf. (2012).
  3. F. Zhang, X. Zi, O. Gonzales de Dios, R. Casellas, "Requirements for GMPLS control of flexible grids," IETF, Draft-Zhang-Ccamp-Flexible-Grid-Requirements-01 (2011).
  4. M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, 138-145 (2010).
  5. N. Sambo, M. Secondini, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, F. Cavaliere, P. Castoldi, "Modeling and distributed provisioning in 10-40-100-Gb/s multirate wavelength switched optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1248-1257 (2011).
  6. N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, "Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks," IEEE Comm. Mag. 50, 66-72 (2012).
  7. T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, M. Jinno, "Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation," Proc. ECOC (2011).
  8. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, S. Yoo, "Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?," IEEE Comm. Mag. 50, s12-s20 (2012).
  9. A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, T. Wang, "Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks," Proc. OFC (2011).
  10. M. Saad, Z.-Q. Luo, "Reconfiguration with no service disruption in multifiber WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. (2005).
  11. T. Miyamura, T. Kurimoto, R. Hayashi, I. Inoue, K. Shiomoto, S. Urushidani, "Demonstration of pce-controlled dynamic traffic engineering for gmpls-based multilayer service network," Proc. ECOC (2005).
  12. A. Kadohata, A. Hirano, M. Fukutoku, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, O. Ishida, "Multi-layer greenfield re-grooming with wavelength defragmentation," IEEE Comm. Lett. PP, 1-3 (2012).
  13. X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, X. Lin, "Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  14. L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, V. Lopez, G. Junyent, "Elastic spectrum allocation for variable traffic in flexible-grid optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  15. F. Fresi, M. Scaffardi, N. Amaya, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, A. Bogoni, "40-Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ and OOK-to-BPSK format and wavelength conversion on a single SOA-MZI for gridless networking operations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2012).
  16. K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, S. Chang, B. Yoo, "Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks," Proc.ECOC (2011).
  17. D. Awduche, L. Berger, RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels (2001).
  18. "Integrable tunable laser assembly MSA," OIF-ITLA-MSA-01.2, Optical Internetworking Forum, OIF (2008).
  19. "Micro integrable tunable laser assembly implementation agreement," OIF-MicroITLA-01.0, Optical Internetworking Forum, OIF (2011).
  20. F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Poti, P. Castoldi, "Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 727-733 (2012).
  21. P. A. Humblet, M. Azizõglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).
  22. "Interfaces for the optical transport network (otn)," ITU-T Recommendation G.709 (2009).
  23. G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Robust multilevel coherent optical systems with linear processing at the receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2357-2369 (2009).
  24. U. Mengali, A. N. D'Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum Press, 1997).
  25. R. Schober, W. H. Gerstacker, "Metric for noncoherent sequence estimation," IEE Electron. Lett. 35, 2178-2179 (1999).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited