OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Vol. 31, Iss. 10 — May. 15, 2013
  • pp: 1628–1635

PCB-Integrated Optical Waveguide Sensors: An Ammonia Gas Sensor

Nikolaos Bamiedakis, Tanya Hutter, Richard V. Penty, Ian H. White, and Stephen R. Elliott

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 10, pp. 1628-1635 (2013)


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1423 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations
  • Export Citation/Save Click for help

Abstract

This paper presents a novel platform for the formation of cost-effective PCB-integrated optical waveguide sensors. The sensor design relies on the use of multimode polymer waveguides that can be formed directly on standard PCBs and commercially-available chemical dyes, enabling the integration of all essential sensor components (electronic, photonic, chemical) on low-cost substrates. Moreover, it enables the detection of multiple analytes from a single device by employing waveguide arrays functionalised with different chemical dyes. The devices can be manufactured with conventional methods of the PCB industry, such as solder-reflow processes and pick-and-place assembly techniques. As a proof of principle, a PCB-integrated ammonia gas sensor is fabricated on a FR4 substrate. The sensor operation relies on the change of the optical transmission characteristics of chemically functionalised optical waveguides in the presence of ammonia molecules. The fabrication and assembly of the sensor unit, as well as fundamental simulation and characterisation studies, are presented. The device achieves a sensitivity of approximately 30 ppm and a linear response up to 600 ppm at room temperature. Finally, the potential to detect multiple analytes from a single device is demonstrated using principal-component analysis.

© 2013 IEEE

Citation
Nikolaos Bamiedakis, Tanya Hutter, Richard V. Penty, Ian H. White, and Stephen R. Elliott, "PCB-Integrated Optical Waveguide Sensors: An Ammonia Gas Sensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1628-1635 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-31-10-1628


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. R. A. Potyrailo, S. E. Hobbs, G. M. Hieftje, "Optical waveguide sensors in analytical chemistry: Today's instrumentation, applications and trends for future development," Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 362, 349-373 (1998).
  2. M.-S. Steiner, A. Duerkop, O. S. Wolfbeis, "Optical methods for sensing glucose," Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 4805-4839 (2011).
  3. F. S. Ligler, "Perspective on optical biosensors and integrated sensor systems," Anal. Chem. 81, 519-526 (2009).
  4. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photon. 1, 106-114 (2007).
  5. A. L. Washburn, R. C. Bailey, "Photonics-on-a-chip: Recent advances in integrated waveguides as enabling detection elements for real-world, lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications," Analyst 136, 227-236 (2011).
  6. H. H. Qazi, A. B. B. Mohammad, M. Akram, "Recent progress in optical chemical sensors," Sensors 12, 16522-16556 (2012).
  7. S. T. Lee, "A sensitive fibre optic pH sensor using multiple sol-gel coatings," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 355 (2001).
  8. T. Hutter, M. Horesh, S. Ruschin, "Method for increasing reliability in gas detection based on indicator gradient in a sensor array," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 152, 29-36 (2011).
  9. E. Thrush, "Monolithically integrated semiconductor fluorescence sensor for microfluidic applications," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 105, 393-399 (2005).
  10. K. S. Lee, H. L. T. Lee, R. J. Ram, "Polymer waveguide backplanes for optical sensor interfaces in microfluidics," Lab Chip 7, 1539-1545 (2007).
  11. O. S. Wolfbeis, "Materials for fluorescence-based optical chemical sensors," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 2657-2669 (2005).
  12. X. Fan, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chimica Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).
  13. B. J. Luff, "Integrated optical Mach–Zehnder biosensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 583-589 (1998).
  14. K. Schmitt, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-2597 (2007).
  15. M. Ramuz, D. Leuenberger, L. Bürgi, "Optical biosensors based on integrated polymer light source and polymer photodiode," J. Polymer Sci. Part B: Polymer Phys. 49, 80-87 (2010).
  16. T. M. Chinowsky, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 91, 266-274 (2003).
  17. T. M. Chinowsky, "Portable 24-analyte surface plasmon resonance instruments for rapid, versatile biodetection," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2268-2275 (2007).
  18. R. Irawan, "Polymer waveguide sensor for early diagnostic and wellness monitoring," Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 3666-3669 (2011).
  19. L. Lin, "Integrated optical sensor in a digital microfluidic platform," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 628-635 (2008).
  20. C. S. Burke, "Development of an integrated optic oxygen sensor using a novel, generic platform," Analyst 130, 41-45 (2005).
  21. L. Hartley, K. V. I. S. Kaler, O. Yadid-Pecht, "Hybrid integration of an active pixel sensor and microfluidics for cytometry on a chip," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers 54, 99-110 (2007).
  22. R. Dangel, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).
  23. X. Wang, "Fully embedded board-level optical interconnects from waveguide fabrication to device integration," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 243-250 (2008).
  24. M. Karppinen, "Parallel optical interconnect between surface-mounted devices on FR4 printed wiring board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments—Art. no. 61850O," Micro-Optics, VCSELs, Photonic Interconnects II: Fabrication, Packaging, Integration 6185, O1850-O1850 (2006).
  25. N. Bamiedakis, "Optical transceiver integrated on PCB using electro-optic connectors compatible with pick-and-place assembly technology," Proc. Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX (2010) pp. 76070O-76011.
  26. Y. Ishii, "SMT-compatible large-tolerance “OptoBump” interface for interchip optical interconnections," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 26, 122-127 (2003).
  27. I. Papakonstantinou, "Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502-511 (2008).
  28. H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, "Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 1339-1365 (2002).
  29. M. P. Immonen, M. Karppinen, J. K. Kivilahti, "Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards," Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 363-371 (2007).
  30. L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
  31. A. W. Norris, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Linear and Nonlinear Optics of Organic Materials III (2003) pp. 76-82.
  32. J. V. DeGroot, Jr."Cost-effective optical waveguide components for printed circuit applications," Proc. Passive Components and Fiber-based Devices IV (2007) pp. 678116-678112.
  33. A. Neyer, "Electrical optical circuit board using Polysiloxane optical waveguide layer," Pro. 55th Electron. Compo. Technol. Conf. (ECTC) (2005) pp. 246-250.
  34. A. Hashim, "Cost-effective 10 Gb/s polymer-based chip-to-chip optical interconnect," IET Optoelectron. 6, 140-146 (2012).
  35. B. Timmer, W. Olthuis, A. V. D. Berg, "Ammonia sensors and their applications—A review," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 107, 666-677 (2005).
  36. B. Buszewski, "Human exhaled air analytics: Biomarkers of diseases," Biomed. Chromatography 21, 553-566 (2007).
  37. W. Cao, Y. Duan, "Optical fiber-based evanescent ammonia sensor," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 110, 252-259 (2005).
  38. S. Korposh, "Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water," Mater. Chem. Phys. 133, 784-792 (2012).
  39. K. Schmitt, "Optical fiber waveguide sensor for the colorimetric detection of ammonia," Proc. SPIE 8066, Smart Sensors, Actuators, MEMS V (2011) pp. 1-6.
  40. V. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, F. De Leonardis, "Ammonia optical sensing by microring resonators," Sensors 7, 2741-2749 (2007).
  41. A. Yimit, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, "Detection of ammonia in the ppt range based on a composite optical waveguide pH sensor," Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 88, 239-245 (2003).
  42. Z.-M. Qi, "Composite optical waveguide composed of a tapered film of bromothymol blue evaporated onto a potassium ion-exchanged waveguide and its application as a guided wave absorption-based ammonia-gas sensor," Opt. Lett. 26, 629-631 (2001).
  43. Roithner LaserTechnik laser chips CHIP-635-P5 http://www.roithner-laser.com/ld_chips.html.
  44. Jenoptik photodiode chips EPC-660-0.5 http://www.jenoptik.com/cms/jenoptik.nsf/id/en_generic_productpage?open&pid=3639&ccm=020050010050.
  45. Fimmwave/FimmpropPhoton Design Ltd.U.K. www.photond.com.
  46. FinetechFINEPLACER micro hvr http://eu.finetech.de/.
  47. I. Jolliffe, Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science (Wiley, 2005).
  48. S. Wold, K. Esbensen, P. Geladi, "Principal component analysis," Chem. Intell. Lab. Syst. 2, 37-52 (1987).
  49. University of Cambridge, Department of EngineeringEngineering for Clinical Practice Grants http://divf.eng.cam.ac.uk/ecp/Main/EcpWaveguide.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited