OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 31, Iss. 11 — Jun. 1, 2013
  • pp: 1744–1754

Analysis of An Optical Wireless Receiver Using a Hemispherical Lens With Application in MIMO Visible Light Communications

Thomas Q. Wang, Y. Ahmet Sekercioglu, and Jean Armstrong

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 11, pp. 1744-1754 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (2051 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


White lighting LEDs offer great potential for high speed communications, especially for indoor applications. However, for their widespread adoption, two important issues need to be addressed: the lack of diversity in multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) systems, and the small field of view of receivers. In this paper, we describe a design using a hemispherical lens in the receiver that solves these problems. By using classical optics, we derive exact expressions for the channel gain and the optical power density of the projected images. Simulation results of a typical indoor scenario show that the new system has a wide field of view, and provides adequate channel gain for angles of incidence as large as 70 degrees. We present the distribution of optical power on the imaging plane for various receiving positions and tilted receivers over a number of representative indoor scenarios. They show that the images of LEDs are clearly distinguishable. The results demonstrate the presence of low channel correlations between individual transmitters and receivers. Consequently, this confirms that the new technique is capable of providing significant diversity order for MIMO optical wireless applications.

© 2013 IEEE

Thomas Q. Wang, Y. Ahmet Sekercioglu, and Jean Armstrong, "Analysis of An Optical Wireless Receiver Using a Hemispherical Lens With Application in MIMO Visible Light Communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1744-1754 (2013)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).
  2. VLCCVisible Light Communications Consortium, (2008).
  3. IEEEIEEE 802.15.7 WPAN Visual Light Communication Study Group, (2008).
  4. D. C. O'Brien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R. J. Green, S. Jivkova, "Short range optical wireless communications," Proc. Wireless World Res. Forum (2005).
  5. J. R. Barry, J. M. Kahn, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, "High-speed nondirective optical communication for wireless networks," IEEE Netw. Mag. 5, 44-54 (1991).
  6. M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, "Indoor broadband optical wireless communications: Optical subsystems designs and their impact on channel characteristics," IEEE Wireless Commun. 10, 30-35 (2003).
  7. L. Zeng, D. C. O'Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, E. T. Won, "High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white led lighting," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654-1662 (2009).
  8. K. D. Dambul, D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, "Indoor optical wireless MIMO system with an imaging receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 97-99 (2011).
  9. S. Hranilovic, F. R. Kschischang, "A pixelated MIMO wireless optical communication system," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 859-874 (2006).
  10. J. M. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. G. Weisbin, B. K. Teik, A. Tang, "Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 88-94 (1998).
  11. D. C. O'Brien, "Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) indoor optical wireless communications," Proc. Signals, Systems Computers, 2009 Conf. Rec. 43rd Asilomar Conf. (2009) pp. 1636-1639.
  12. S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, D. Katabi, "PixNet: Interference-free wireless links using LCD-camera pairs," Proc. MOBICOM'2010 (2010) pp. 137-148.
  13. W. Yuan, K. Dana, M. Varga, A. Ashok, M. Gruteser, N. Mandayam, "Computer vision methods for visual MIMO optical system," Proc. CVPRW (2011) pp. 37-43.
  14. J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).
  15. I. E. Telatar, "Capacity of multi-antenna Gaussian channels," Eur. Trans. Telecom. 10, 585-595 (1999).
  16. L. Zeng, D. C. O'Brien, H. Le-Minh, L. Kyungwoo, J. Daekwang, O. Yunje, "Improvement of date rate by using equalization in an indoor visible light communication system," Proc. IEEE ICCSC (2008) pp. 678-682.
  17. M. J. Langford, A. Fox, R. S. Smith, Langford's Basic Photography the Guide for Serious Photographers .
  18. W. N. Bond, "A wide angle lens for cloud recording," Philosophical Mag. 44, 999-1001 (1922).
  19. T. Q. Wang, Y. A. Sekercioglu, J. Armstrong, "Hemispherical lens based imaging receiver for MIMO optical wireless communications," Proc. 3rd IEEE Workshop OWC (2012) pp. 1239-1243.
  20. F. R. Gfeller, U. H. Bapst, "Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation," Proc. IEEE 67, 1474-1486 (1979).
  21. K. D. Möller, Optics .
  22. J. R. Barry, J. M. Kahn, W. J. Krause, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, "Simulation of multipath impulse response for wireless optical channels," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 367-379 (1993).
  23. R. M. Brannon, “Rotation, A Review of Useful Theorems Involving Proper Orthogonal Matrices Referenced to Three Dimensional Physical Space,” (2002) http://www.mech.utah.edu/~brannon/public/rotation.pdf.
  24. J. B. Choong, J. Armstrong, “An Optical Wireless Receiver Using A Hemispherical Lens for MIMO Visible Light Communications Systems,” Summer Research Project of Monash University (2013) http://titania.ctie.monash.edu.au/mimo-hemis-exp.pdf.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited