OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 31, Iss. 18 — Sep. 15, 2013
  • pp: 3014–3020

Characterization of LPGs via Correlation Analysis of an Analytical Solution With Observed Transmission Spectra

Richard M. Carter, Robert R. J. Maier, Palas Biswas, Somnath Bandyopadhyay, Nandini Basumallick, Benjamin J. S. Jones, Scott McCulloch, and James S. Barton

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 18, pp. 3014-3020 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (4614 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


In this paper, we describe a technique to characterize long period fiber gratings (LPG) by use of a correlation between the measured transmission spectrum and a theoretical model. The model is robust enough to require only a-priori knowledge of the fiber design and the inscription period. We demonstrate the application of this technique on an example LPG resulting in the calculation of the dispersive core index, length, and strength of the grating to better than experimental error. The technique is further expanded to allow for the modeling of metal jacketed long period gratings by use of an extended version of Erdogan's model.

© 2013 IEEE

Richard M. Carter, Robert R. J. Maier, Palas Biswas, Somnath Bandyopadhyay, Nandini Basumallick, Benjamin J. S. Jones, Scott McCulloch, and James S. Barton, "Characterization of LPGs via Correlation Analysis of an Analytical Solution With Observed Transmission Spectra," J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3014-3020 (2013)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996 ).
  2. S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
  3. T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Investigations of the spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in three-layered optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 264- 268 (2003).
  4. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings ," Opt. Exp. 14, 19-34 (2006).
  5. S. W. James, C. S. Cheung, R. P. Tatam, "Experimental observations on the response of 1 $^{\rm st}$ and 2 $^{\rm nd}$ order fibre optic long period grating coupling bands to the deposition of nanostructured coatings," Opt. Exp. 15, 13096-13107 (2007).
  6. D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, "Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458-1460 (1999).
  7. R. R. J. Maier, B. J. S. Jones, J. S. Barton, "Fibre optics in palladium-based hydrogen sensing," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 , S45-S59 (2007).
  8. V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, "Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872-1876 (1997).
  9. K. Gao, J. X. Geng, A. B. Yu, "Characteristics of metal-coated long-period fiber gratings," Proc. SPIE—Opt. Fiber Planar Waveguide Technol. II (2002) pp. 166-170.
  10. L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, "Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1373-1378 (1999 ).
  11. R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, "Modeling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709-1713 (2001).
  12. T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 ( 2002).
  13. F. Abrishamian, N. Dragomir, K. Morishita, "Refractive index profile changes caused by arc discharge in long-period fiber gratings fabricated by a point-by-point method," Appl. Opt. 51, 8271-8276 (2012).
  14. O. V. Ivanov, "Reconstruction of parameters of an optical fiber from the transmission spectrum of long-period gratings induced in this fiber," Opt. Commun. 272, 395-402 (2007).
  15. A. Rosenthal, M. Horowitz, "Reconstruction of long-period fiber gratings from their core-to-core transmission function ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 57-68 (2006).
  16. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).
  17. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).
  18. T. Erdogan, "Cladding mode resonances in short- and long-period fibre grating filters: Errata," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 17, 2113 (2000).
  19. I. H. Malitson, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1205-1208 (1965).
  20. (2011). Corning® SMF-28e+® Optical Fiber. Corning, Inc., Corning, NY, USA. [Product Datasheet]. [Online]. Available: http://www.corning.com/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=41261.
  21. C. Tsao, Optical Fibre Waveguide Analysis (Oxford Univ. Press, 1992) pp. 298-366.
  22. R. M. Carter, P. Morrall, R. R. J. Maier, "Optical characterisation of RF sputter coated palladium thin films for hydrogen sensing," SPIE 21st Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors presented at theOttowaONCanada (2011).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited