OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 31, Iss. 22 — Nov. 15, 2013
  • pp: 3469–3476

Characterization of Strongly Coupled Si-Wire Waveguides for High-Density Optical WDM and Sensing Applications

Shahab Bakhtiari Gorajoobi, M. Mustafa Kaykisiz, and Erdal Bulgan

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 22, pp. 3469-3476 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (848 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


This paper presents theoretical and experimental study of ultra-compact Si-wire Optical Directional Couplers (ODCs) on Silicon-on-Insulator wafer for optical signal processing. The presence of the controllable evanescent light strongly confined in the region bounded by the Si nano-wires has a large impact on the optical power coupling between waveguides. The characteristics of coupling length and power transmission in ODCs based on separation, wavelength, light field propagation distance and geometry of waveguides are described in detail by the coupled mode theory, 3-D finite-difference time-domain analysis and beam propagation method, and are confirmed by experiments. The exponential dependency of coupling length on the separation of coupled waveguides and wavelength shows interesting high-sensitivity optical sensing, switching and multiplexing properties. Custom spectral properties can be achieved by the configuration of coupled nano-wire waveguides based on their separation and lengths. We show that optimization of ODCs based on the physics of the coupled waveguides will lead to short optical devices which can be integrated as building blocks within high-density photonic circuits with the desired spectral characteristics. In the end, two new systems based on Mach–Zehnder structure and Micro-Ring Resonators are proposed in which ODCs are implemented as embedded tunable devices resulting in more functional optical sensing and signal processing devices.

© 2013 IEEE

Shahab Bakhtiari Gorajoobi, M. Mustafa Kaykisiz, and Erdal Bulgan, "Characterization of Strongly Coupled Si-Wire Waveguides for High-Density Optical WDM and Sensing Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3469-3476 (2013)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. T. Yamazaki, H. Aono, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Coupled waveguide polarization splitter with slightly different core widths," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3528-3533 (2008).
  2. I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "A compact silicon-on-insulator polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100-102 (2005).
  3. Y. Yue, L. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Beausoleil, A. Willner, "Silicon-on-insulator polarization splitter using two horizontally slotted waveguides ," Opt. Lett. 35, 1364-1366 (2010).
  4. L. Augustin, J. van der Tol, R. Hanfoug, W. de Laat, M. van de Moosdijk, P. van Dijk, Y. Oei, M. Smit, "A single etch-step fabrication-tolerant polarization splitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 740- 746 (2007).
  5. D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” presented at the Light: Science Application, vol. 1, no. 3, Mar. 2012, Paper. e1..
  6. I. Park, H. Lee, H. Kim, K. Moon, S. Lee, S. Park, and E. Lee, “Photonic crystal power-splitter based on directional coupling,” Opt. Exp. , vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 3599–3604, 2004..
  7. P. Luan, K. Chang, "Periodic dielectric waveguide beam splitter based on co-directional coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 4536-4545 (2007).
  8. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
  9. A. Prabhu, V. Van, W. Herman, P. Ho, "Compact silicon microring-assisted directional couplers for optical signal processing applications," Opt. Lett. 34, 1249-1251 (2009).
  10. I. De Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, "Detection of nanomechanical motion by evanescent light wave coupling ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116-233116 (2007).
  11. S. Bakhtiari Gorajoobi, M. M. Kaykisiz, and E. Bulgan, “Principal and experimental demonstration of nano-scale sensing with highly-confined guided evanescent lightwave,” presented at the Optical Sensors, Rio Grande, PR, USA, 2013, Paper ST5B.3..
  12. T. Ikeda, K. Takahashi, Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, "Phase-shifter using submicron silicon waveguide couplers with ultra-small electro-mechanical actuator," Opt. Exp. 18 , 7031-7037 (2010 ).
  13. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).
  14. R. Chatterjee, C. Wong, "Nanomechanical proximity perturbation for switching in silicon-based directional couplers for high-density photonic integrated circuits," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 657-662 (2010).
  15. T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 $\times$ n thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 10109-10114 (2005).
  16. D. Van Thourhout, J. Roels, "Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force," Nat. Photon. 4, 211-217 (2010).
  17. M. Povinelli, M. Loncar, M. Ibanescu, E. Smythe, S. Johnson, F. Capasso, J. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides ," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
  18. B. Luff, R. Harris, J. Wilkinson, R. Wilson, D. Schiffrin, "Integrated-optical directional coupler biosensor," Opt. Lett. 21, 618-620 (1996).
  19. V. Passaro, F. DellOlio, C. Ciminelli, M. Armenise, "Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot soi waveguides," Sensors 9 , 1012-1032 (2009 ).
  20. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
  21. H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Optical directional coupler based on si-wire waveguides ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 585-587 (2005).
  22. A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36 , 321-322 (2000 ).
  23. K. Ebeling, Integrated Optoelectronics: Waveguide Optics, Photonics, Semiconductors (Springer-Verlag, 1993).
  24. T. Ikeda, Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, "Submicron silicon waveguide Mach-zehnder interferometer using micro electro-mechanical phase-shifter," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton. (2010) pp. 97-98.
  25. K. Xu, L.-G. Yang, J.-Y. Sung, Y. M. Chen, Z. Z. Cheng, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, H. K. Tsang, " Compatibility of silicon Mach-zehnder modulators for advanced modulation formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 2550- 2554 (2013).
  26. P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 10941-10946 (2010).
  27. K. Takahashi, Y. Kanamori, Y. Kokubun, K. Hane, "A wavelength-selective add-drop switch using silicon microring resonator with a submicron-comb electrostatic actuator," Opt. Exp. 16, 14421-14428 (2008).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited