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Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Vol. 31, Iss. 9 — May. 1, 2013
  • pp: 1482–1487

Fabrication of Smooth Ridge Optical Waveguides in LiNbO3 by Ion Implantation-Assisted Wet Etching

P. De Nicola, S. Sugliani, G. B. Montanari, A. Menin, P. Vergani, A. Meroni, M. Astolfi, M. Borsetto, G. Consonni, R. Longone, A. Nubile, M. Chiarini, M. Bianconi, and G. G. Bentini

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 9, pp. 1482-1487 (2013)


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Abstract

Very smooth relief microstructures were fabricated in X-cut Lithium Niobate by using an improved ion implantation-assisted wet etching technique. The substrates were implanted with 5 MeV Cu ions at a fluence of 1 × 10<sup>15</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> through a masking layer. Three kinds of layers were patterned and tested: Au, positive photoresist and SU-8 negative photoresist. The damaged regions were then etched with a HF solution at a rate of 100 nm/s. The process can be repeated to obtain higher aspect ratios. The relief structures fabricated with this technology are presented and discussed. In order to explore a possible application of our technique optical waveguides were created in the best quality structures by means of a multi-step carbon ion implantation process with ten different energies followed by an annealing at 280°C for 30 minutes. In this way a step-like enhanced extraordinary refractive index profile was obtained inside the ridges extending from surface to a depth of 2.75 <i>μm</i>. Optical characterization @ 660 nm of the waveguides yielded a propagation loss of 0.23 ± 0.09 dB/cm. The very good results of the best structures make them very promising for integrated optics and acousto/opto-fluidics.

© 2013 IEEE

Citation
P. De Nicola, S. Sugliani, G. B. Montanari, A. Menin, P. Vergani, A. Meroni, M. Astolfi, M. Borsetto, G. Consonni, R. Longone, A. Nubile, M. Chiarini, M. Bianconi, and G. G. Bentini, "Fabrication of Smooth Ridge Optical Waveguides in LiNbO3 by Ion Implantation-Assisted Wet Etching," J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1482-1487 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-31-9-1482


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References

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