OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 32, Iss. 14 — Jul. 15, 2014
  • pp: 2461–2467

Symmetric Few-Mode Fiber Couplers as the Key Component for Broadband Mode Multiplexing

Christos P. Tsekrekos and Dimitris Syvridis

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 32, Issue 14, pp. 2461-2467 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1040 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


All-fiber broadband mode multiplexers (MMUXs) for mode and wavelength division multiplexing transmission systems are designed and analyzed. The MMUXs are based on cascaded 2-D or 3-D symmetric few-mode fiber (FMF) couplers. The MMUXs are optimized for operation over the C band and multiplex modes LP $_{01}$ , LP $_{11a}$ , LP $_{11b}$ , LP $_{21a}$ , LP $_{21b}$ , and LP $_{02}$ with a nearly flat response and an average insertion loss around 1.6 dB, depending on the design approach. The operation of the FMF couplers and the MMUXs is analyzed numerically by means of a full-vectorial beam propagation method. If the two polarization states of each LP mode are further considered, such all-fiber MMUXs can be used to combine 12 spatial channels, supporting an order of magnitude capacity increase—compared to a single spatial channel system—in optical fiber transmission systems through space (mode and polarization) division multiplexing.

© 2014 IEEE

Original Manuscript: July 30, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 23, 2014
Published: May 30, 2014

Christos P. Tsekrekos and Dimitris Syvridis, "Symmetric Few-Mode Fiber Couplers as the Key Component for Broadband Mode Multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 2461-2467 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent $6\times 6$ MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 521–531, 2012.
  2. M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, P. Brindel, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, and G. Charlet, “Mode-division multiplexing of $2\times 100$ Gb/s channels using an LCOS-based spatial modulator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 618–623, 2012.
  3. N. Hanzawa, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper OWA4.
  4. K. Y. Song, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, and B. Y. Kim, “High performance fused-type mode-selective coupler using elliptical core two-mode fiber at 1550 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 501–503, 2002.
  5. A. Li, X. Chen, A. Al Almin, and W. Shieh, “Fused fiber mode couplers for few-mode transmission,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1953–1956, 2012.
  6. J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Opt. Lett., vol. 37, no. 19, pp. 3990–3992, 2012.
  7. B. Huang, C. Xia, G. Matz, N. Bai, and G. Li, “Structured directional coupler pair for multiplexing of degenerate modes,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., OSA Tech. Dig., 2013, Paper JW2A.25.
  8. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides.New York, NY, USA: Elsevier, 2006.
  9. C. P. Tsekrekos and D. Syvridis, “All-fiber broadband LP$_{02}$ mode converter for future wavelength and mode division multiplexing systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1638–1641, 2012.
  10. C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 3323–3336, 1998.
  11. S.-M. Tseng and C.-L. Chen, “Side-polished fibers,” Appl. Opt., vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 3438–3447, 1992.
  12. K. Suzuki, V. Sharma, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, and Y. Nasu, “Characterization of symmetric [3 $\times$ 3] directional couplers fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 2335–2343, 2006.
  13. W.-J. Chen, S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, “Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 15, pp. 11470–11480, 2008.
  14. N. Jovanovic, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 7739, pp. 773923-1–773923-8, 2010.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited