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## Few-Mode Fibers Supporting More Than Two LP Modes For Mode-Division-Multiplexed Transmission With MIMO DSP

Takayoshi Mori, Taiji Sakamoto, Masaki Wada, Takashi Yamamoto, and Fumihiko Yamamoto

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 32, Issue 14, pp. 2468-2479 (2014)

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### Abstract

We propose a transmission fiber for mode-division-multiplexed transmission with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing supporting four and six linearly polarized (LP) modes over the C + L band. We show numerically that a graded-index core can flexibly tune the differential mode group delay (DMD) and a cladding trench can flexibly control the guiding mode number. We optimized the spacing of the core and trench. Accordingly, we can achieve a few-mode operation of more than two LP modes and low DMD while preventing the high-refractive index difference that leads to manufacturing difficulties and any loss increase. Finally, we successfully fabricated fibers for use in a C + L band WDM-MDM transmission with MIMO DSP, and realized a transmission fiber with a total absolute DMD of less than 40 ps/km for four-LP mode operation and of less than 70 ps/km for six-LP mode operation over the entire C + L band.

© 2014 IEEE

**History**

Original Manuscript: March 25, 2014

Manuscript Accepted: May 27, 2014

Published: June 2, 2014

**Citation**

Takayoshi Mori, Taiji Sakamoto, Masaki Wada, Takashi Yamamoto, and Fumihiko Yamamoto, "Few-Mode Fibers Supporting More Than Two LP Modes For Mode-Division-Multiplexed Transmission With MIMO DSP," J. Lightwave Technol. **32**, 2468-2479 (2014)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-32-14-2468

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- T. Mori, T. Sakamoto, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Six-LP-mode transmission fiber with DMD of less than 70 ps/km over C + L band,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun., San Francisco, CA, 2014, Paper M3F.3.
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- P. Sillard and D. Molin, “A review of few-mode fibers for space-division multiplexed transmissions,” presented at the 39th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., 2013, Paper Mo.3.A.1.
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**Abe, Y.**

- H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Kawakami, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, Y. Goto, K. Tsujikawa, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, and T. Morioka, “1.01-Pb/s (12 SDM/222 WDM/456 Gb/s) crosstalk-managed transmission with 91.4-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper Th.3.C.1.

**Achten, F.**

- P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, H. Maerten, D. Van Ras, and F. Achten, “Low-DMGD 6-LP-mode fiber,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, 2014, Paper M3F.2.

**Alam, S.-U.**

- V. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. V. Uden, M. Kuschnerov, Q. Kang, L.-G. -Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. Richardson, S.-U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. Sahu, A. Dhar, H. Chen, B. Inan, T. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. Ellis, and H. D. Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 × 3 × 256-Gb/s) mode-division- multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper Th.3.C.4.

**Astruc, M.**

- C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2 × 100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 17, pp. 16593–16600, 2011.

**Bai, N.**

- N. Bai, E. Ip, Y. K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M. J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. Lau, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G. D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 2668–2680, 2012.

**Bickham, S.**

- N. Bai, E. Ip, Y. K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M. J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. Lau, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G. D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 2668–2680, 2012.
- M.-J. Li, B. Hoover, S. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, Y. Shao, and T. Wang, “Low delay and large effective area few-mode fibers for mode-division multiplexing,” presented at the Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf., Busan, Korea, 2012, Paper 5C3-2.

**Bigo, S.**

- C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2 × 100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 17, pp. 16593–16600, 2011.

**Bigot-Astruc, M.**

- P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, H. Maerten, D. Van Ras, and F. Achten, “Low-DMGD 6-LP-mode fiber,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, 2014, Paper M3F.2.

**Bolle, C.**

- R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 521–531, 2012.

**Boutin, A.**

**Brindel, P.**

**Buchali, F.**

- B. Franz, D. Suikat, R. Dischler, F. Buchali, and H. Buelow, “High speed OFDM data transmission over 5 km GI-multimode fiber using spatial multiplexing with 2 × 4 MIMO processing,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Torino, Italy, 2011, Paper Th.3.C.4.

**Buelow, H.**

- B. Franz, D. Suikat, R. Dischler, F. Buchali, and H. Buelow, “High speed OFDM data transmission over 5 km GI-multimode fiber using spatial multiplexing with 2 × 4 MIMO processing,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Torino, Italy, 2011, Paper Th.3.C.4.

**Bunge, C.-A.**

- R. E. Freund, C.-A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, and C. Caspar, “High-speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 569–586, 2010.

**Burrows, E.**

- R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Corteselli, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L.-G. Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, Paper PDP5A.1.

**Burrows, E. C.**

- R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 521–531, 2012.

**Caspar, C.**

- R. E. Freund, C.-A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, and C. Caspar, “High-speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 569–586, 2010.

**Cerou, F.**

**Chandrasekhar, S.**

- R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Corteselli, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L.-G. Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, Paper PDP5A.1.

**Charlet, G.**

**Chen, H.**

- V. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. V. Uden, M. Kuschnerov, Q. Kang, L.-G. -Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. Richardson, S.-U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. Sahu, A. Dhar, H. Chen, B. Inan, T. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. Ellis, and H. D. Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 × 3 × 256-Gb/s) mode-division- multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper Th.3.C.4.

**Corbett, B.**

**Corteselli, S.**

**da Silva, H. J. A.**

- F. M. Ferreira, D. Fonseca, and H. J. A. da Silva, “Design of few-mode fibers with M-modes and low differential mode delay,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 353–360, 2014.

**de Gabory, E. L. T.**

- H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” presented at theEur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper Th.3.C.3.

**Delbue, R.**

**Dhar, A.**

**Dischler, R.**

**Ellis, A.**

**Esmaeelpour, M.**

**Essiambre, R.-J.**

**Ferreira, F. M.**

- F. M. Ferreira, D. Fonseca, and H. J. A. da Silva, “Design of few-mode fibers with M-modes and low differential mode delay,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 353–360, 2014.

**Fonseca, D.**

**Fontaine, N. K.**

**Franz, B.**

**Freund, R. E.**

**Fukai, C.**

- T. Matsui, K. Nakajima, and C. Fukai, “Applicability of photonic crystal fiber with uniform air-hole structure to high-speed and wide-band transmission over conventional telecommunication bands,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 5410–5416, 2009.

**Gnauck, A. H.**

**Goto, Y.**

- H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Kawakami, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, Y. Goto, K. Tsujikawa, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, and T. Morioka, “1.01-Pb/s (12 SDM/222 WDM/456 Gb/s) crosstalk-managed transmission with 91.4-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper Th.3.C.1.

**Hanzawa, N.**

- N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui1, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011, Paper OWA4.
- N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Asymmetric parallel waveguide with mode conversion for mode and wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2012, Paper OTu1l.4.

**Haruna, T.**

- M. Hirano, T. Haruna, Y. Tamura, T. Kawano, S. Ohnuki, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Koyano, and T. Sasaki, “Record low loss, record high FOM optical fiber with manufacturable process,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, Paper PDP5A.7.

**Hirano, M.**

- M. Hirano, T. Haruna, Y. Tamura, T. Kawano, S. Ohnuki, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Koyano, and T. Sasaki, “Record low loss, record high FOM optical fiber with manufacturable process,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, Paper PDP5A.7.

**Hoover, B.**

- M.-J. Li, B. Hoover, S. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, Y. Shao, and T. Wang, “Low delay and large effective area few-mode fibers for mode-division multiplexing,” presented at the Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf., Busan, Korea, 2012, Paper 5C3-2.

**Hsu, R. C. J.**

- A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber-links,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 57–63, 2007.

**Huang, Y. K.**

**Huang, Y.-K.**

**Igarashi, K.**

- H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E. L. T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W. R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First demonstration of MC-EDFA-repeatered SDM transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals per core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” presented at theEur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper Th.3.C.3.

**Imamura, K.**

**Inan, B.**

**Ip, E.**

**Ishida, I.**

**Ito, T.**

**Jakobsen, D.**

- L. G. -Nielsen, Y. Sun, J. W. Nicholson, D. Jakobsen, R. Lingle, and B. Palsdottir, “Few mode transmission fiber with low DGD, low mode coupling and low loss,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2012, Paper PDP5A.1.

**Jalali, B.**

- A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber-links,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 57–63, 2007.

**Jensen, R. V.**

**Jung, Y.**

**Kang, Q.**

**Kawaguchi, Y.**

**Kawakami, H.**

**Kawano, T.**

**Kobayashi, T.**

**Koebele, C.**

**Koonen, T.**

**Koshiba, M.**

- K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 927–933, 2002.
- N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui1, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011, Paper OWA4.
- N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Asymmetric parallel waveguide with mode conversion for mode and wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2012, Paper OTu1l.4.

**Koyano, Y.**

**Kubota, H.**

**Kuschnerov, M.**

**Kuwaki, N.**

- K. Sato, R. Maruyama, N. Kuwaki, S. Matsuo, and M. Ohashi, “Optimized graded index two-mode optical fiber with low DMD, large Aeff and low bending loss,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16231–16238, 2013.
- R. Maruyama, N. Kuwaki, S. Matsuo, K. Sato, and M. Ohashi, “DMD free transmission line composed of TMFs with large effective area for MIMO processing,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper Tu.1.F.2.

**Lau, A. P.**

**Ledentsov, N. N.**

**Li, G.**

**Li, M. J.**

**Li, M.-J.**

**Li, S.**

**Liñares, J.**

**Lingle, R.**

- L. G. -Nielsen, Y. Sun, J. W. Nicholson, D. Jakobsen, R. Lingle, and B. Palsdottir, “Few mode transmission fiber with low DGD, low mode coupling and low loss,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2012, Paper PDP5A.1.

**Lu, C.**

**Luo, Y.**

**Maeda, K.**

**Maerten, H.**

**Man Chung, K.**

**Mardoyan, H.**

**Maruyama, R.**

- K. Sato, R. Maruyama, N. Kuwaki, S. Matsuo, and M. Ohashi, “Optimized graded index two-mode optical fiber with low DMD, large Aeff and low bending loss,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16231–16238, 2013.
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