## Photon Information Efficient Communication Through Atmospheric Turbulence–Part I: Channel Model and Propagation Statistics

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 32, Issue 6, pp. 1075-1087 (2014)

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### Abstract

Optical communication with high photon-efficiency (many bits/photon) and high spectral
efficiency (SE) (many bits/s-Hz) cannot be achieved unless multiple spatial modes are employed.
For vacuum propagation, it is known that achieving 10 bits/photon and 5 bits/s-Hz requires 189
low-loss spatial modes at the ultimate Holevo limit and 4500 such modes at the Shannon limit for
on–off keying with direct detection. For terrestrial propagation paths, however, atmospheric
turbulence corrupts multiple spatial-mode operation. This paper derives power-transmissivity
bounds and average intermodal crosstalks for the turbulent channel that depend solely on the
mutual coherence function of the atmospheric Green’s function. These statistics are then evaluated
for

© 2013 IEEE

**Citation**

Nivedita Chandrasekaran and Jeffrey H. Shapiro, "Photon Information Efficient Communication Through Atmospheric Turbulence–Part I: Channel
Model and Propagation Statistics," J. Lightwave Technol. **32**, 1075-1087 (2014)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-32-6-1075

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