OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 32, Iss. 6 — Mar. 15, 2014
  • pp: 1104–1115

QPAR: A Quasi-Passive Reconfigurable Green Node for Dynamic Resource Management in Optical Access Networks

Yingying Bi, Jing Jin, Ahmad R. Dhaini, and Leonid G. Kazovsky

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 32, Issue 6, pp. 1104-1115 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1404 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


Passive optical networks (PONs) are regarded as a promising solution for the broadband bandwidth bottleneck problem. However, due to their passive nature, legacy TDM-PONs are limited by their inflexible power distribution, while future WDM-PONs are restricted by their static wavelength allocation. To mitigate these limitations, we propose QPAR, a Quasi-Passive Reconfigurable node, which provides flexible power and bandwidth allocation, and enables a graceful upgrade from TDM-PON to WDM-PON. Due to its quasi-passive nature, QPAR only consumes power during reconfiguration. Simulation results show that QPAR can increase the number of users, extend the reach, and balance the traffic load in the network compared with legacy PONs. QPAR can be implemented using either discrete or integrated components. We demonstrate an experimental QPAR using two different optical latching switches based on micro-electro-mechanical systems and magneto-optic materials. Lastly, we experimentally investigate QPAR performances.

© 2013 IEEE

Yingying Bi, Jing Jin, Ahmad R. Dhaini, and Leonid G. Kazovsky, "QPAR: A Quasi-Passive Reconfigurable Green Node for Dynamic Resource Management in Optical Access Networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1104-1115 (2014)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. KEYMILE White Paper, “AON versus PON—A comparison of two optical access network technologies and the different impact on operations,” KEYMILE International GmbH, Hannover, Germany, 2008..
  2. A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review [invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 4, 737-758 (2005).
  3. G. Das, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, "A hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using wavelength selective switches," Proc. IEEE 4th Int. Symp. Adv. Netw. Telecommun. Syst. (2010) pp. 52-54.
  4. L. G. Kazovsky, W. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, S. Wong, " Next generation optical access networks," IEEE J. Lightw. Tech. 25 , 3428-3442 (2007).
  5. Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, Y. Ma, "Time-and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2)," J. Lightw. Technol. 31 , 587-593 (2013).
  6. S. H. Yen, S. W. Wong, S. Das, N. Cheng, J. Cho, S. Yamashita, O. Solgaard, L. G. Kazovsky, "Photonic components for future fiber access network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28 , 928-935 (2010).
  7. Y. Bi, J. Jin, L. G. Kazovsky, "Quasi-passive reconfigurable optical node: First experimental demonstration," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (2012, Paper CTh1 H.5).
  8. H. Song, B.-w. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms," IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 12, 112-123 (2010).
  9. W. Noell, P. A. Clerc, F. Duport, C. Marxer, N. de Rooij, "Novel process-insensitive latchable 2 × 2 optical cross connector for single- and multimode optical MEMS fiber switches," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS (2003) pp. 49-50.
  10. R. Bahuguna, M. Mina, J. Tioh, R. J. Weber, "Magneto-optic-based fiber switch for optical communications," IEEE Trans. Magn. 42, 3099 -3101 (2006).
  11. Z.-H. Weng, J.-J. Ruan, S.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Chen, "Fast magneto-optic switch based on nanosecond pulses," Opt. Eng. 50, 095001 (2011).
  12. K. Tsunoda, Y. Fukuzumi, J. R. Jameson, Z. Wang, P. B. Griffin, Y. Nishi, "Bipolar resistive switching in polycrystalline TiO $_{2}$ films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 113501-1-113501-3 (2007).
  13. S. H. Yen “Reconfigurable technology for future optical access networks,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, USA..
  14. G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, A. S Pomportsis, "Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 384-405 (2003).
  15. Optical latching switch (OLS) data sheets from Sercalo, Ltd., [Online]. Available: http://www.sercalo.com/?navig = 27.
  16. H. Miyakawa, Y. Tanaka, T. Kurokawa, "Design approaches to power-over-optical local-area-network systems," Appl. Opt. 43 , 1379-1389 (2004).
  17. A. Mathur, M. Ziari, V. Dominic, "Record 1 watt fiber-coupled-power 1480 nm diode laser pump for Raman and erbium doped fiber amplification," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2000) pp. 211-213.
  18. J. Jin, Y. Bi, M. D. Leenheer, L. G. Kazovsky, J. Perin, M. R. N. Ribeiro, "Quasi-passive and reconfigurable optical node: Implementations with discrete latching switches," Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf. (2012) pp. 917-918.
  19. Y. S. Didosyan, H. Hauser, W. Fiala, J. Nicolics, W. Toriser, "Latching type optical switch," J. Appl. Phys. 91 , 7000-7002 (2002).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited