OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

  • Editor: Richard A. Linke
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 2005
  • pp: 361–390

Design and performance of protected working capacity envelopes based on p-cycles for dynamic provisioning of survivable services

Gangxiang Shen and Wayne Grover  »View Author Affiliations

Journal of Optical Networking, Vol. 4, Issue 7, pp. 361-390 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (538 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



As an alternative to the shared backup path protection (SBPP) method, we develop a framework for dynamic provisioning of survivable services through the use of p-cycles to form a protected working capacity envelope (PWCE) within which dynamic provisioning of protected services is greatly simplified. With a PWCE, arbitrarily fast dynamic service demands can be handled with much less complexity (in terms of database maintenance and state update dissemination) than with SBPP. Only a simple open-shortest-path-first (OSPF) topology view of nonexhausted spans in the envelope is required. If a new path can be routed through the envelope, it is protected by virtue of being routable. This is in contrast to needing a full database of the network state so that the end user can set up a shared backup protection path under SBPP. In addition, dissemination of spare capacity sharing updates occurs only on the time scale of the nonstationary evolution of the demand statistics, not like SBPP, which occurs on the time scale of individual connection arrivals or departures. During statistically stationary periods there is no dissemination of spare capacity sharing updates whatsoever with an envelope that is well matched to its load. The PWCE concept thus offers some new trade-offs between operational simplicity and spare capacity efficiency. Under the PWCE concept p-cycles are of particular interest for consideration because, although many protection techniques can be the basis of PWCE operation p-cycles offer the unique combination of ring-like protection times with the capacity efficiency of shared-mesh networks. But, in addition, p-cycles offer a further important property for a transparent optical network: that of providing fully pre-cross-connected protection paths. Because all protection paths are preconnected structures, optical transmission path integrity can be validated before failure and is not of such concern as it is in schemes where optical replacement path segments of several wavelength channels would have to be assembled on the fly (without the benefit of o-e-o between stages). The main contribution of this work is the detailed implementation and simulation of test networks operating under PWCE and designed with novel envelope volume maximizing formulations. A wide range of network capacity environments were considered to find that p-cycle-based PWCE is close to SBPP in blocking performance while simultaneously offering much simpler operation and a faster restoration speed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.0000) General : General
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: March 3, 2005
Revised Manuscript: March 2, 2005
Published: June 20, 2005

Gangxiang Shen and Wayne Grover, "Design and performance of protected working capacity envelopes based on p-cycles for dynamic provisioning of survivable services," J. Opt. Netw. 4, 361-390 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset


  1. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at APOC 2004, Asia-Pacific Optical Communications Conference, Beijing, China (SPIE, 2004), pp. 519-533.
  2. S. Kini, M. Kodialam, T. V. Laksham, and C. Villamizar, "Shared backup label switched path restoration," Internet draft draft-kini-restoration-shared-backup-00.txt (Aug. 2000),<a href="http://www.netzmafia.de/rfc/internet-drafts/draft-kini-restoration-shared-backup-00.txt">http://www.netzmafia.de/rfc/internet-drafts/draft-kini-restoration-shared-backup-00.txt</a>.
  3. E. Bouillet, J. F. Labourdette, G. Ellinas, R. Ramamurthy, and S. Chaudhuri, "Stochastic approaches to compute shared mesh restored lightpaths in optical network architectures," in Proceedings of INFOCOM (IEEE, 2002), pp. 801-807.
  4. G. Li, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, and R. Doverspike, "," in Proceedings of INFOCOM (IEEE, 2002), pp. 140-149.
  5. C. Ou, J. Zhang, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, "Near-optimal approaches for shared-path protection in WDM mesh networks," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1320-1324.
  6. P. H. Ho, "State-of-the-art progresses in developing survivable routing strategies in the optical Internet," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 6, 2-16 (2004).
  7. M. Ammar and attendees of the NSF Workshop on Fundamental Research in Networking, "Report of NSF workshop on fundamental research in networking," Report to the National Science Foundation Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) (National Science Foundation, April 2003),<a href="http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~jorg/workshop1/NSF-NetWorkshop-2003.pdf">http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~jorg/workshop1/NSF-NetWorkshop-2003.pdf</a>.
  8. R. Boutaba, G. Goldszmidt, H. G. Hegering, J. Schönwälder, and M. Sloman, "Autonomic communication systems--special issue," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (to be pulished).
  9. W. D. Grover, Mesh-based Survivable Networks, Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET, and ATM Networking (Prentice Hall PTR, 2003); see Chap. 5 for span-restorable mesh-based network design theory, Chap. 10 for references on p-cycle related topics.
  10. W. D. Grover, "The protected working capacity envelope concept: an alternate paradigm for automated service provisioning," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 62-69 (2004).
  11. G. Shen and W. D. Grover, "Automatic lightpath service provisioning with an adaptive protected working capacity envelope based on p-cycles," submitted to DRCN 2005, The Fifth International Workshop on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (IEEE Communications Society).
  12. W. D. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, "Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, ICC 1998 (IEEE, 1998), pp. 537-543.
  13. W. D. Grover and M. Clouqueur, "Span-restorable mesh networks with multiple quality of protection (QoP) service classes," Photon. Netw. Commun. 9, 7-18 (2005).
  14. Network Systems Group, TRLabs, The p-Cycles Home Page,<a href="http://tomato.edm.trlabs.ca/p-cycles/">http://tomato.edm.trlabs.ca/p-cycles/</a>(if the URL changes in the future, check<a href="http://www.ee.ualberta.ca/~at grover/">http://www.ee.ualberta.ca/~at grover/</a>for an updated link).
  15. M. Herzberg, S. Bye, and A. Utano, "The hop-limit approach for spare-capacity assignment in survivable networks," IEEE∕ACM Trans. Netw., 3, 775-784 (1995).
  16. W. D. Grover and D. Y. Li, "The forcer concept and express route planning in mesh-survivable networks," J. Netw. Syst. Manage. 7, 199-223 (1999).
  17. G. Shen and W. D. Grover, "Exploiting forcer structure to serve uncertain demands and minimize redundancy of p-cycle networks," in OptiComm 2003: Optical Networking and Communications, A. K.Somani and Z.Zhang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5285,59-70(2003).
  18. G. Shen and W. D. Grover, "Design of protected working capacity envelopes based on p-cycles: an alternative framework for survivable automated lightpath provisioning," in Performance Evaluation and Planning Methods for the Next Generation Internet, A.Girard, B.Sanso, and F.Vazquez-Abad, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2005).
  19. G. Shen and W. D. Grover, "A framework for dynamic survivable service provisioning based on p-cycles and the protected working capacity envelope (PWCE) concept," Technical Report TR-04-06 (TRLabs, Oct. 2004).
  20. D. A. Dunn, W. D. Grover, and M. H. MacGregor, "A comparison of k-shortest paths and maximum flow methods for network facility restoration," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 88-99 (1994).
  21. C. Qiao and D. Xu, "Distributed partial information management (DPIM) schemes for survivable networks--part I," in Proceedings of INFOCOM (IEEE, 2002), pp. 302-311.
  22. G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. Y. Chai, "Heuristic algorithm for efficient light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads," Comput. Commun. 24, 364-373 (2001).
  23. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN's," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).
  24. J. Doucette and W. D. Grover, "Influence of modularity and economy-of-scale effects on design of mesh-restorable DWDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1912-1923 (2000).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited