OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

  • Editor: Richard A. Linke
  • Vol. 6, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2007
  • pp: 63–73

Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon  »View Author Affiliations


Journal of Optical Networking, Vol. 6, Issue 1, pp. 63-73 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JON.6.000063


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (756 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=28">Feature Issue on Nanoscale Integrated Photonics for Optical Networks</a></p>The goal of the research program that we describe is to break the emerging performance wall in microprocessor development arising from limited bandwidth and density of on-chip interconnects and chip-to-chip (processor-to-memory) electrical interfaces. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible photonic devices provide an infrastructure for deployment of a range of integrated photonic networks, which will replace state-of-the-art electrical interconnects, providing significant gains at the system level. Scaling of wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) architectures using high-index-contrast (HIC) waveguides offers one path to realizing the energy efficiency and density requirements of high data rate links. HIC microring-resonator filters are well suited to support add-drop nodes in dense WDM photonic networks with high aggregate data rates because they support high Q's and, due to their traveling-wave character, naturally support physically separated input and drop ports. A novel reconfigurable, 'hitless' switch is presented that does not perturb the express channels either before, during, or after reconfiguration. In addition, multigigahertz operation of low-power, Mach-Zehnder silicon modulators as well as germanium-on-silicon photodiodes are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.5170) Optical devices : Photodiodes
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(250.3140) Optoelectronics : Integrated optoelectronic circuits
(250.7360) Optoelectronics : Waveguide modulators

ToC Category:
Nanoscale Integrated Photonics for Optical Networks

History
Original Manuscript: September 6, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 1, 2006
Published: December 22, 2006

Virtual Issues
Nanoscale Integrated Photonics for Optical Networks (2006) Journal of Optical Networking

Citation
T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 63-73 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jocn/abstract.cfm?URI=jon-6-1-63


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. D. C. Pham, T. Aipperspach, D. Boerstler, M. Bolliger, R. Chaudhry, D. Cox, P. Harvey, P. M. Harvey, H. P. Hofstee, C. Johns, J. Kahle, A. Kameyama, J. Keaty, Y. Masubuchi, M. Pham, J. Pille, S. Posluszny, M. Riley, and D. L. Stasiak, 'Overview of the architecture, circuit design, and physical implementation of a first-generation cell processor,' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 179-196 (2006).
  2. P. Kongetira, K. Aingaran, and K. Olukotun, 'Niagara: A 32-Way Multithreaded SPARC Processor,' IEEE Micro 25, 21-29 (2005).
  3. R. Ho, K. W. Mai, and M. A. Horowitz, 'The future of wires,' Proc. IEEE 89, 490-504 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. R. Ho, K. Mai, and M. Horowitz, 'Efficient on-chip global interconnects,' Symposium on VLSI Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2003), pp. 271-274.
  5. D. Schinkel, E. Mensink, E. A. Klumperink, E. van Tuijl, and B. Nauta, 'A 3-Gbits/s/ch transceiver for 10-mm uninterrupted RC-limited global on-chip interconnects,' IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 297-306 (2006).
  6. B. Mukherjee, 'WDM-based local lightwave networks. I. Single-hop systems,' IEEE Network 6, 12-27 (1992).
  7. B. E. Little, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, E. P. Ippen, and D. J. Ripin, 'Wavelength switching and routing using absorption and resonance,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 816-818 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. S. J. Emelett and R. Soref, 'Design and simulation of silicon microring optical routing switches,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1800-1807 (2005).
  9. E. A. J. Marcatili, 'Bends in optical dielectric guides,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103-2132 (1969).
  10. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, 'Microring resonator channel dropping filters,' J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, 'Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. H. A. Haus, 'Microwaves and Photonics,' in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (TOPS), Vol. 23 Symposium on Electro-Optics: Present and Future (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 2-8.
  13. B. E. Little, 'Advances in microring resonators,' in Proceedings of the Integrated Photonics Research Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 165-167.
  14. M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, 'Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction,' in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 266-268.
  15. T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, 'Fabrication and analysis of add/drop filters based on microring resonators in SiN,' Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE2004), paper TuL4.
  16. T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, F. X. Kaertner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, 'Fabrication control of the resonance frequencies of high-index-contrast microphotonic cavities,' presented at Integrated Photonics Research and Applications, April 24-26, 2006, Uncasville, Connecticut, USA (Optical Society of America), paper JWA3.
  17. T. Shiragaki, N. Henmi, M. Fujiwara, M. Misono, T. Shiozawa, and S. Suzuki, 'Optical cross-connect system incorporated with newly developed operation and management system,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1179-1189 (1998).
  18. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, 'Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2755-2762 (2004).
  19. R. E. Scotti, C. K. Madsen, C. H. Henry, G. Lenz, Y. P. Li, H. Presby, and A. White, 'A hitless reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for WDM networks utilizing planar waveguides, thermo-optic switches and UV-induced gratings,' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 142-143.
  20. H. A. Haus, M. A. Popovic, and M. R. Watts, 'Broadband hitless bypass switch for integrated photonic circuits,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1137-1139 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. M. A. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, 'Universally balanced photonic interferometers,' Opt. Lett. 31, 2713-2715 (2006).
  22. M. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, 'MEMS-actuated microdisk resonators with variable power coupling ratios,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1034-1036 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. G. A. Magel, 'Integrated optic devices using micromachined metal membranes,' in Integrated Optics and Microstructures III, Proc. SPIE 2686, 54-63 (1996).
  24. R. A. Soref, 'Silicon-based optoelectronics,' Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993). [CrossRef]
  25. P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, 'CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000). [CrossRef]
  26. A. Liu, D. Samara-Rubio, L. Liao, and M. Paniccia, 'Scaling the modulation bandwidth and phase efficiency of a silicon optical modulator,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 367-372 (2005).
  27. F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, 'High-speed silicon electro-optic modulator design,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007-1009 (2005).
  28. Q. Xu, Br. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, 'Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,' Nature 435, 325-327 (2005). [CrossRef]
  29. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, 'High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999). [CrossRef]
  30. D. D. Cannon, 'Strain-engineered CMOS-compatible Ge photodetectors,' Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003).
  31. D. D. Cannon, 'Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 906-908 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited