OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

  • Editors: K. Bergman and V. Chan
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 2011
  • pp: 651–666

Offline Routing and Regenerator Placement and Dimensioning for Translucent OBS Networks

Oscar Pedrola, Davide Careglio, Miroslaw Klinkowski, and Josep Solé-Pareta  »View Author Affiliations

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, Vol. 3, Issue 9, pp. 651-666 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (842 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The deployment of translucent optical networks is considered the most promising short term solution to decrease costs and energy consumption in optical backbone networks. In fact, translucent wavelength switched optical networks (WSONs) have recently received great attention from the research community due to their technological maturity. However, the inflexibility and coarse granularity of WSONs is (re-)fostering research interest in sub-wavelength switching technologies such as optical burst switching (OBS). In OBS, however, the majority of research works neglect the impact of physical layer impairments by considering either fully transparent (i.e., with optical 3R regeneration) or opaque (i.e., with electrical 3R regeneration) networks. For this very reason, in this paper we present a translucent OBS (T-OBS) network architecture which aims at bridging the gap between the transparent and opaque solutions. In the T-OBS network the problem of routing and regenerator placement and dimensioning (RRPD) emerges. Joint RRPD is a complex problem and, in order to approach it, we propose to decompose it into the routing and RPD subproblems. As a consequence, we provide a mixed integer linear programming formulation of the routing problem and several heuristic strategies for the RPD problem. Illustrative numerical results prove the effectiveness of these methods at minimizing the number of electrical 3R regenerators deployed in the network. Considering a broad range of network topologies, we show that the proposed RPD heuristics ensure a proper quality of transmission performance whilst at the same time providing a cost-effective T-OBS network architecture.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
(060.4256) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, network optimization
(200.6015) Optics in computing : Signal regeneration

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: March 30, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 8, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 13, 2011
Published: August 11, 2011

Oscar Pedrola, Davide Careglio, Miroslaw Klinkowski, and Josep Solé-Pareta, "Offline Routing and Regenerator Placement and Dimensioning for Translucent OBS Networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 651-666 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. Ramamurthy, H. Fenq, D. Datta, J. P. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, "Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks," Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC’1999, Vol. 1, Feb. 1999, San Diego, CA, pp. 59‒61.
  2. R. Martínez, C. Pinart, F. Cugini, N. Andriolli, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, L. Wosinska, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, "Challenges and requirements for introducing impairment-awareness into the management and control planes of ASON/GMPLS WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (12), 76‒85 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, "Translucent optical networks: the way forward," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, (2), 48‒54 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, D. Li, and G. Martinelli, "A framework for the control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON) with impairments," IETF Internet draft, Oct. 2010.
  5. R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, and R. Casellas, "Challenges for GMPLS lightpath provisioning in transparent optical networks: wavelength constraints in routing and signalling," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, (8), 26‒34 (2009).
  6. C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)–A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).
  7. H. Buchta and E. Patzak, "Analysis of the physical impairments on maximum size and throughput of SOA-based optical burst switching nodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, (16), 2821‒2830 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, "Modelling and performance evaluation of a translucent OBS network architecture," Proc. IEEE Globecom 2010, Dec. 2010, Miami, FL, pp. 1‒6.
  9. X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, "Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing," Photonic Network Commun. 10, (1), 39‒53 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Pachnique, T. Paschenda, and P. M. Krummrich, "Physical impairment based regenerator placement and routing in translucent optical networks," Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC 2008, Feb. 2008, San Diego, CA, pp. 1‒3.
  11. W. Zhang, J. Tang, K. E. Nygard, and C. Wang, "REPARE: Regenerator placement and routing establishment in translucent networks," Proc. IEEE Globecom 2009, Nov. 2009, pp. 1‒7.
  12. O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, "RRPD strategies for a T-OBS network architecture," Proc. IEEE HPSR 2011, July 2011, Cartagena, Spain, pp. 95‒100.
  13. M. Dorigo and T. Stützle, Ant Colony Optimization, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2004.
  14. J. Gonçalves and M. Resende, "Biased random-key genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization," J. Heuristics (posted 27 August 2010, in press).
  15. A. Sen, S. Murthy, and S. Bandyopadhyay, "On sparse placement of regenerator nodes in translucent optical networks," Proc. IEEE Globecom 2008, Nov. 2008, pp. 1‒6.
  16. S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. K. Manousakis, P. Kokkinos, K. Christodoulopoulos, and E. Varvarigos, "Joint online routing, wavelength assignment and regenerator allocation in translucent optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, (8), 1152‒1163 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Fan and B. Wang, "Physical impairment aware scheduling in optical burst switched networks," Photonic Network Commun. 18, (2), 244‒254 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. B. G. Bathula, R. R. C. Bikram, V. M. Vokkarane, and S. Talabattula, "Quality of transmission aware manycasting over optical burst-switched (OBS) networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, (10), 820‒829 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. H. Buchta, C. M. Gauger, and E. Patzak, "Maximum size and throughput of SOA-based optical burst switching nodes with limited tuning-range wavelength converters and FDL buffers," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, (16), 2919‒2927 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. R. Martínez, R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, and T. Tsuritani, "Experimental translucent-oriented routing for dynamic lightpath provisioning in GMPLS-enabled wavelength switched optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, (8), 1241‒1255 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. H. Pereira, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "OSNR model to consider physical layer impairments in transparent optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 18, (2), 137‒149 (2009). [CrossRef]
  23. T. Tsuritani, M. Miyazawa, S. Kashihara, and T. Otani, "Optical path computation element interworking with network management system for transparent mesh networks," Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC 2008, Feb. 2008, San Diego, CA, pp. 1‒10.
  24. INPHENIX [Online]. Available: http://www.inphenix.com/soa_devices.html
  25. MRV [Online]. Available: http://www.mrv.com/product/MRV-LD-OAB
  26. M. Mestre, J. M. Fabrega, J. A. Lazaro, V. Polo, A. Djupsjobacka, M. Forzati, P. J. Rigole, and J. Prat, "Tuning characteristics and switching speed of a modulated grating Y structure laser for wavelength routed PONs," Proc. ANIC 2010, June 2010, Karlsrhue, Germany, pp. 1‒2.
  27. M. Klinkowski, J. Pedro, D. Careglio, M. Pióro, J. Pires, P. Monteiro, and J. Solé-Pareta, "An overview of routing methods in optical burst switching networks," Opt. Switching Netw. 7, (2), 41‒53 (2010). [CrossRef]
  28. J. Kleinberg and E. Tardos, Algorithm Design, Addison-Wesley, 2005, pp. 661‒706.
  29. M. Dorigo and C. Blum, "Ant colony optimization theory: A survey," Theor. Comput. Sci. 344, (2–3), 243‒278 (2005). [CrossRef]
  30. R. Garlick and R. Barr, "Dynamic wavelength routing in WDM networks via ant colony optimization," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2463, 27‒41 (2002).
  31. S. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, "An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks," Photonic Network Commun. 11, (1), 39‒48 (2006). [CrossRef]
  32. J. Triay and C. Cervelló-Pastor, "An ant-based algorithm for distributed routing and wavelength assignment in dynamic optical networks," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, (4), 542‒552 (2010). [CrossRef]
  33. T. Noronha, M. Resende, and C. Ribeiro, "A biased random-key genetic algorithm for routing and wavelength assignment," J. Global. Optim. 50, (3), 503‒518 (2011). [CrossRef]
  34. R. Reis, M. Ritt, L. Buriol, and M. Resende, "A biased random-key genetic algorithm for OSPF and DEFT routing to minimize network congestion," Int. Trans. Oper. Res. 18, (3), 401‒423 (2011).
  35. IBM ILOG CPLEX [Online]. Available: http://www-01.ibm.com/software/integration/optimization/cplex/
  36. S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, "Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison," Photonic Network Commun. 5, (3), 203‒225 (2003). [CrossRef]
  37. S. Orlowski, M. Pióro, A. Tomaszewski, and R. Wessäly, "SNDlib 1.0 survivable network design library," Networks 55, (3), 276‒286 (2010).
  38. M. Klinkowski, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and M. Marciniak, "Performance overview of the offset time emulated OBS network architecture," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (14), 2751‒2764 (2009). [CrossRef]
  39. J. Y. Wei and R. I. McFarland, "Just-in-time signaling for WDM optical burst switching networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, (12), 2019‒2037 (2000). [CrossRef]
  40. Z. Rosberg, H. L. Vu, M. Zukerman, and J. White, "Performance analyses of optical burst-switching networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1187‒1197 (2003). [CrossRef]
  41. O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, M. Klinkowski, D. Careglio, C. Gaumier, and J. Solé-Pareta, "JAVOBS: a flexible simulator for OBS network architectures," J. Netw. 5, (2), 256‒264 (2010).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited