OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

  • Editors: K. Bergman and O. Gerstel
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2013
  • pp: 421–436

Impact of Node Architecture in the Power Consumption and Footprint Requirements of Optical Transport Networks

Rui Manuel Morais, João Pedro, Paulo Monteiro, and Armando Nolasco Pinto  »View Author Affiliations

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, Vol. 5, Issue 5, pp. 421-436 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1414 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We evaluate and compare the power consumption and the number of required slots (footprint) of fixed and flexible transport nodes. The node architecture is assumed to comprise a grooming structure, and a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM). Fixed grooming is achieved using cascades of muxponders. Alternatively, flexible grooming is achieved with electrical switches. Fixed frequency and fixed direction ROADM, and colorless and directionless ROADM are considered. For all the architectures, we present an accurate dimensioning model that allows computation of the required modules. Results show that to optimize the total power consumption and footprint of the network, the architecture of each node has to be selected according to the amount and pattern of the add/drop and regenerated traffic and the number of pairs of fibers convergent to the node. An optimization method based on simple rules for node type selection is proposed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
(060.4256) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, network optimization

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: September 20, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 25, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 1, 2013
Published: April 12, 2013

Rui Manuel Morais, João Pedro, Paulo Monteiro, and Armando Nolasco Pinto, "Impact of Node Architecture in the Power Consumption and Footprint Requirements of Optical Transport Networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 421-436 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, 2010. [CrossRef]
  2. J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling WSS technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 7, pp. 150–154, 2008. [CrossRef]
  3. S. Thiagarajan, L. Blair, and J. Berthold, “Direction-independent add/drop access for multi-degree ROADMs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Feb. 2008.
  4. A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), Jan. 2010.
  5. P. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in Wireless and Optical Communications Conf. (WOCC), Mar. 2010.
  6. A. Deore, O. Turkcu, S. Ahuja, S. Hand, and S. Melle, “Total cost of ownership of WDM and switching architectures for next-generation 100  Gb/s networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 11, pp. 179–187, 2012. [CrossRef]
  7. O. Gerstel, “Simple analytical estimation of router bypass effectiveness,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010.
  8. A. Jarray, B. Jaumard, and A. Houle, “CapEx/OpEx effective optical wide area network design,” Telecommun. Syst., vol.  49, pp. 329–344, 2012. [CrossRef]
  9. M. Mezhoudi and Y. Hu, “Economics of a convergent optical backbone transport with NG-OTN,” in Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp. (NETWORKS), Sept. 2010.
  10. P. Serna, I. S. Barla, S. Duhovnikov, C. M. Machuca, and D. Schupke, “Evaluation of transponder and regenerator pre-provisioning,” in Conf. of Telecommunication, Media and Internet Techno-Economics (CTTE), 2012.
  11. “Lowering network TCO through integrated digital switching and WDM transport,” White Paper WP-EQ-09-2012, Infinera, Sunnyvale, CA, 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.infinera.com/pdfs/whitepapers/Infinera-WP-Network_Efficiency_Quotient.pdf .
  12. S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, and D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003. [CrossRef]
  13. S. De Maesschalck, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, and P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic grooming in networks with an IP/MPLS layer on top of a meshed optical layer,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., (GLOBECOM), 2003, pp. 2750–2754.
  14. F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and A. Pattavina, “A power consumption analysis for IP-over-WDM core network architectures,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 108–117, 2012. [CrossRef]
  15. X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 12, pp. 1931–1942, 2012. [CrossRef]
  16. E. Palkopoulou, D. Schupke, and T. Bauschert, “Energy efficiency and CapEx minimization for backbone network planning: Is there a tradeoff?” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), Dec. 2009.
  17. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 13, pp. 2391–2403, 2009. [CrossRef]
  18. S. Aleksić, “Energy efficiency of electronic and optical network elements,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 296–308, 2011. [CrossRef]
  19. S. Aleksić, “Analysis of power consumption in future high-capacity network nodes,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 3, pp. 245–258, 2009. [CrossRef]
  20. C. Dorize, A. Morea, O. Rival, and B. Berde, “An energy-efficient node interface for optical core networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2010.
  21. R. Tucker, “Green optical communications—part I: Energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 245–260, 2011. [CrossRef]
  22. R. Tucker, “Green optical communications—part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, 2011. [CrossRef]
  23. L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), Apr. 2011, pp. 349–354.
  24. G. Shen, L. Peng, Y. Shen, and H. Sardesai, “Optimal node hardware module planning for layer-one optical transport networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 12, pp. 937–946, 2011. [CrossRef]
  25. M. Scheffel, R. Prinz, C. Gruber, A. Autenrieth, and D. Schupke, “Optimal routing and grooming for multilayer networks with transponders and muxponders,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Nov. 2006.
  26. “Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN),” ITU-T Rec. G.709/Y.1331, 2009.
  27. P. Pavon-Marino and M. Bueno-Delgado, “Dimensioning the add/drop contention factor of directionless ROADMs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 21, pp. 3265–3274, 2011. [CrossRef]
  28. A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in multi-fiber optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Net., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 816–829, 2011. [CrossRef]
  29. M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, P. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. on Telecommunications Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), June 2010.
  30. A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Energy and cost efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 2, pp. 215–221, 2012. [CrossRef]
  31. W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, 2012. [CrossRef]
  32. J. Pedro, J. Santos, and R. Morais, “Dynamic setup of multi-granular services over next-generation OTN/DWDM networks: Blocking versus add/drop port usage,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Apr. 2012.
  33. A. Saleh and J. Simmons, “Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 9, pp. 3303–3321, 2006. [CrossRef]
  34. A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Optimized design of multistage passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 5, pp. 402–411, 2012. [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited