OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

  • Editor: Richard A. Linke
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 6 — Jun. 6, 2003
  • pp: 144–160

Regeneration in synchronous optical network/WDM rings

Armen Sevian  »View Author Affiliations

Journal of Optical Networking, Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp. 144-160 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (918 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


In today’s WDM all-optical networks, a majority of existing virtual topology design algorithms have ignored link-performance limiting factors such as dispersion, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), cross talk resulting from signal leakage in optical cross connects (OXCs), and fiber nonlinearities. All these factors result in bit-error-rate (BER) degradation at the receiving end. To maintain a BER below a certain level, some lightpaths in the network will require regeneration at the intermediate nodes, thus, setting up a lightpath in a multihop manner. In synchronous optical network (SONET) ring networks, the terminal equipment cost associated with electronic multiplexing is predominantly high. Wavelength add–drop multiplexers reduce the amount of SONET terminal equipment at each node by allowing certain wavelengths or bands to bypass the node optically without being electronically terminated. Most of the previous research in this area has focused on the virtual topology design and wavelength-routing algorithms to address the cost savings. Here we consider both unidirectional path-switched and bidirectional line-switched rings (UPSR, BLSR/2) with optical bypass. We analytically derive a relationship for the number of regenerators to support both single-hub and all-to-all situations for uniform and nonuniform traffic cases with an arbitrary internodal length distribution. We obtain lower and upper bounds for regeneration cost on a ring when nodes are randomly placed. Equivalency is established between UPSR and BLSR/2 networks in terms of regeneration cost for cases of single link failure. Regeneration cost advantage is shown for nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF) over standard single-mode fiber in dispersion-limited regimes.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: February 25, 2003
Revised Manuscript: February 24, 2003
Published: May 27, 2003

Armen Sevian, "Regeneration in synchronous optical network/WDM rings," J. Opt. Netw. 2, 144-160 (2003)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset


  1. J. M. Simmons, E. L. Goldstein, and A. A. M. Saleh, "Quantifying the benefit of wavelength add-drop in WDM rings with distance-independent and dependent traffic," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 48-57 (1999).
  2. A. L. Chiu and E. H. Modiano, "Traffic grooming algorithms for reducing electronic multiplexing costs in WDM ring networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2-12 (2000).
  3. H. Gafouri-Shiraz, G. Zhu, and Y. Fei, "Effective wavelength assignment algorithms for optimizing design cost in SONET/WDM rings," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 27-39 (2001).
  4. O. Gerstel, P. Lin, and G. Sasaki, "Combined WDM and SONET network design," in Proceedings of IEEE Infocom99 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 734-743.
  5. P. Arijs, R. Meersman, W. Van Parys, E. Iannone, A. Tanzi, M. Pierpaoli, F. Bentivoglio, and P. Demeester, "Architecture and design of optical channel protected ring networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 11-22 (2001).
  6. P. Arijs, B. Van Canegem, P. Demeester, P. Lagasse, W. Van Parys, and P. Achten, "Design of ring and meshed based WDM transport networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. (July 2000), pp. 25-40.
  7. C. P. Larsen and P. O. Andersson "Signal quality monitoring in optical networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. (October 2000), pp. 17-23.
  8. F. Bentivoglio and E. Iannone, "The opaque optical network," Opt. Netw. Mag. (October 2000), pp. 24-32.
  9. S.-W. Kim and S.-W. Seo, "Regeneration placement algorithm for connection establishment in all-optical networks," IEEE Proc. Commun. 148, 25-30 (2001).
  10. M. R. Wilson, "The quantitative impact of survivable network architectures on service availability," IEEE Commun. Mag. (May 1998), pp. 122-126.
  11. Ch. Kennedy, A. Kruse, I. Tomkos, I. Roudas, A. Sevian, P. Dupriez, and D. Culverhouse, "The performance of negative dispersion fiber at 10 Gbps and the significance of externally and directly modulated lasers," in Proceedings of the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2001 (NFOEC'01) (2001).
  12. A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, and D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited