OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

  • Editor: Keren Bergman
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2009
  • pp: 33–50

Coarse optical circuit switching by default, rerouting over circuits for adaptation

Jerry Chou and Bill Lin  »View Author Affiliations

Journal of Optical Networking, Vol. 8, Issue 1, pp. 33-50 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (494 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



As Internet traffic continues to grow unabated at an exponential rate, it is unclear whether the existing packet-routing network architecture based on electronic routers will continue to scale at the necessary pace. On the other hand, optical fiber and switching elements have demonstrated an abundance of capacity that appears to be unmatched by electronic routers. In particular, the simplicity of circuit switching makes it well suited for optical implementations. We present what we believe to be a new approach to optical networking based on a paradigm of coarse optical circuit switching by default and adaptive rerouting over circuits with spare capacity. We consider the provisioning of long-duration quasi-static optical circuits between edge routers at the boundary of the network to carry the traffic by default. When the provisioned circuit is inadequate, excess traffic demand is rerouted through circuits with spare capacity. In particular, by adaptively load balancing across circuits with spare capacity, excess traffic is routed to its final destination without the need to create circuits on the fly. Our evaluations on two separate real, large Internet service provider point-of-presence-level topologies, Abilene and GEANT, show that only a very small amount of excess traffic needs to be rerouted even during peak traffic hours when the circuit configurations are carefully chosen and that this excess traffic could always be accommodated using our adaptive rerouting approach. We also demonstrate that our adaptive load-balancing approach is robust to sudden unexpected traffic changes by demonstrating its ability to reroute traffic under a number of hot-spot scenarios.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
(060.1155) Fiber optics and optical communications : All-optical networks
(060.6718) Fiber optics and optical communications : Switching, circuit
(060.6719) Fiber optics and optical communications : Switching, packet

ToC Category:
Optical Routers

Original Manuscript: July 3, 2008
Revised Manuscript: October 16, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: November 10, 2008
Published: December 17, 2008

Virtual Issues
Optical Routers (2008) Journal of Optical Networking

Jerry Chou and Bill Lin, "Coarse optical circuit switching by default, rerouting over circuits for adaptation," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 33-50 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. V. Chan, “Near-term future of the optical network in question?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25(9, Part Supplement), 1-2 (2007).
  2. M. Yoo, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 98-104 (2001).
  3. G. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)--a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks 8(1/1999), 69-84 (1999).
  4. P. Molinero-Fernandez and N. McKeown, “TCP switching: exposing circuits to IP,” in Hot Interconnects 9 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 43-48.
  5. P. Molinero-Fernandez, “Circuit switching in the Internet,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2003).
  6. R. Zhang-Shen and N. McKeown, “Designing a predictable Internet backbone network,” in HotNets III (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004).
  7. M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, and S. Sengupta, “Efficient and robust routing of highly variable traffic,” in HotNets III (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 15-21.
  8. M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, J. B. Orlin, and S. Sengupta, “A versatile scheme for routing highly variable traffic in service overlays and IP backbones,” in 25th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-12.
  9. V. W. S. Chan, G. Weichenberg, and M. Medard, “Optical flow switching,” in Workshop on Optical Burst Switching (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-8.
  10. G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 84-101 (2007).
  11. A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).
  12. S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical-label switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS, and GMPLS,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(3), 17-31 (2003).
  13. G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, and D. Spears, “OIF UNI 1.0--controlling optical networks,” White paper (Optical Internetworking Forum, 2001).
  14. COPLAR is pronounced the same as the word “copular,” which is the adjective form of the noun “copula,” meaning “something that connects or links together.”
  15. M. Roughan, A. Greenberg, C. Kalmanek, M. Rumsewicz, J. Yates, and Y. Zhang, “Experience in measuring Internet backbone traffic variability: models, metrics, measurements and meaning,” in International Teletraffic Congress (ITC) (2003), pp. 379-388.
  16. A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharyya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: existing techniques and new directions,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 32, 161-174 (2002).
  17. D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 598-607 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. B. Ramamurthy and A. Ramakrishnan, “Virtual topology reconfiguration of wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1269-1275.
  19. M. Tornatore, G. Maier, and A. Pattavina, “WDM network optimization by ILP based on source formulation,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1813-1821.
  20. F. Ricciato, S. Salsano, A. Belmonte, and M. Listanti, “Off-line configuration of a MPLS over WDM network under time-varying offered traffic,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 57-65.
  21. D. Applegate and E. Cohen, “Making intra-domain routing robust to changing and uncertain traffic demands: understanding fundamental tradeoffs,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 313-324.
  22. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks (Prentice Hall, 1987).
  23. Z. Cao and E. W. Zegura, “Utility max-min: an application-oriented bandwidth allocation scheme,” in Eighteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1999), pp. 793-801.
  24. D. Rubenstein, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, “The impact of multicast layering on network fairness,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 169-182 (2002).
  25. B. Radunovic and J. Y. Le Boudec, “A unified framework for max-min and min-max fairness with applications,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 1073-1083 (2007).
  26. M. Allalouf and Y. Shavitt, “Centralized and distributd approximation algorithms for routing and weighted max-min fair bandwidth allocation,” in 2005 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2005), pp. 306-311.
  27. Advanced networking for leading-edge research and education, http://abilene.internet2.edu.
  28. Intel-Dante monitoring project, http://www.geant.net/server/show/nav.117.
  29. J. Moy, OSPF version 2, March 1994, www.ieft.org/rfc/rfc2328.txt.
  30. C. Hopps, “Analysis of an equal-cost multi-path algorithm,” Request for Comments 2992 (Network Working Group, 2000).
  31. E. Rose, A. Viswanathan, and R. Callon, “Multiprotocol label switching architecture, Request for Comments 3031 (Network Working Group, 2001).
  32. L. Xu, H. G. Perros, and G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 136-142 (2001).
  33. S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003). [CrossRef]
  34. S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003). [CrossRef]
  35. S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, “Walking the tightrope: responsive yet stable traffic engineering,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.
  36. A. Elwalid, C. Jin, S. Low, and I. Widjaja, “MATE: MPLS adaptive traffic engineering,” in Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2001), pp.1300-1309.
  37. S. Fischer, N. Kammenhuber, and A. Feldmann, “REPLEX--dynamic traffic engineering based on Wardrop routing policies,” in ACM CoNEXT (Association for Computing Machinery, 2006), pp. 1-12.
  38. G. Karakostas, 'Faster approximation schemes for fractional multicommodity flow problems,” in Thirteenth Accnual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Association for Computing Machinery, 2002), pp. 166-173.
  39. S. Kandula, D. Katabi, S. Sinha, and A. Berger, “Dynamic load balancing without packet reordering,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 37, 51-62 (2007).
  40. R. Hassin and S. Rubinstein, “Approximations for the maximum acyclic subgraph problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 51, 133-140 (1994).
  41. Available at http://www.geant.net/upload/pdf/GEANṮTopology̱12-2004.pdf.
  42. TOTEM, a toolbox for traffic engineering methods, February 2005, http://totem.info.ucl.ac.be.
  43. Y. Zhang, Abilene traffic matrices, www.cs.utexas.edu/~yzhang/research/AbileneTM.
  44. TOTEM GEANT traffic matrices, totem.info.ucl.ac.be/dataset.html.
  45. Cisco IOS Netflow, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/732/Tech/netflow/.
  46. E. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numerische Matematik 271, 1-269 (1959).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited