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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 23, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1933
  • pp: 15–23

Chromaticity Sensibility to Wave-Length Difference as a Function of Purity

E. P. T. TYNDALL  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 15-23 (1933)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.23.000015


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Abstract

Using apparatus designed by Priest and Gibson, the writer has determined sensibility to wave-length difference for his right eye: (1) For stimuli of unit purity (spectral light) from 450 to 645 mµ (2) For stimuli consisting of artificial noon sunlight plus homogeneous light of some selected wave-length, the wave-lengths being 455, 470, 481.5, 493, 530, 580, 635 mµ, and the purities ranging from unity to a few percent. (3) For stimuli consisting of homogeneous light of wave-length 455 plus some one of heterogeneous stimuli specified as follows: (a) equal energy, (b) color temperature 2570°K, (c) color temperature over 24,000°K. (4) For a stimulus consisting of homogeneous light of wave-length 530 mµ plus heterogeneous light of color temperature over 24,000 °K. The results of (1) are concordant with previous determinations by others. The least perceptible difference (LPD) in wavelength for (2) shows, for wave-lengths 635, 580, 530 and 493mµat first a slow and then, near zero purity, a rapid increase as purity is decreased. For wave-length 455 mµ with decreasing purity, the LPD at first increases and then decreases to a pronounced minimum at about fifteen percent purity, increasing rapidly beyond this. Wavelengths 470 and 481.5 mµ show a similar but less marked effect. The experiments noted under (3) and (4) were undertaken in order to study the effect of the spectral distribution of the heterogeneous stimulus in modifying the peculiar results just described for wave-lengths less than 482 mµ. It is shown that the form of the curve showing LPD as a function of purity depends upon the spectral distribution of the heterogeneous stimulus. Two hypotheses are proposed to account for the peculiar results for short wave-lengths.

Citation
E. P. T. TYNDALL, "Chromaticity Sensibility to Wave-Length Difference as a Function of Purity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 15-23 (1933)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-23-1-15


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References

  1. König and Dieterici, Graefe's Arch. f. Opht. Abt. [2] 30, 171 (1884). König, Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol. 160 (1885). Uhthoff, Graefe's Arch. f. Opht., Abt. 4, 34, 1 (1888). Brodhun, Zeits. f. Psych. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 3, 97 (1892). Exner, Wien, Sitzb. 2A, 111, 875 (1902). Steindler: Wien, Sitzb. 2A, 115, 39 (1906). Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1, 63 (1917). Laurens and Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923). Hamilton and Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).
  2. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 544 (1922).
  3. Watson, Proc. Roy. Soc. B84, 118 (1911).
  4. The apparatus was designed and assembled by Irwin G. Priest and K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 14, 136 (1927).
  5. Tafeln zur Untersuchung des Farbenunterscheidungs-Vermögens, W. Nagel, 7th Edition, Bergmann, Wiesbaden, 1911.
  6. Pseudo-Isochromatische Tafeln zur Prüfung des Farbensinnes, J. Stilling, 14th Edition, Leipzig, 1913.
  7. Lord Rayleigh, Nature, 25, 64 (1881). Nagel, Zeits. f. Augenheilkunde 17, 201 (1907). Rosmanit, Anleitung zur Feststellung der Farbentüichtigkeit, Leipzig, 1914.
  8. Rosmanit, reference 7, pp. 76–79.
  9. Tests by Priest at the Bureau of Standards, June-September, 1926.
  10. Gibson and Tyndall, B. S. Sci. Pap. No. 475, 156 (1923), Observer No. 1.
  11. The unit used is the photon as defined by Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 950 (see footnote 1) (1916).
  12. Reference 10, p. 142 and Fig. 22.
  13. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 955 (1916), gives 60 photons as a lower limit.
  14. Priest, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 479 (1926). Judd, B. S. J. Research 4, 524 (1930).
  15. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 305 (1926).
  16. Priest, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 7, 1184 (1923).
  17. K. S. Gibson and F. G. Brickwedde.
  18. Priest, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 7, 1175 (1923).
  19. It should be mentioned that the 1000-watt lamp did not stay constant throughout its use. With the daylight filter it was color-matched, as stated before, at the start of this work with Abbot-Priest sunlight, approximately equivalent to a color temperature of 5325°K, but at the completion of the experimental work, its color temperature with the same filter was found to be 5820°K, a rise of about 500°K. The color temperature of the lamp alone was found at this time to be 2650°K. By using the spectral centroid relation, Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 11, 473 (1925), the original color temperature of the lamp alone was computed to be 2570°K, and it is the relative energy for this temperature which is given by curve 1 in Fig. 3. The reason for using the initial rather than the final distribution of energy of the lamp is that the parallel change of brightness, of which a continuous record was made in terms of the comparison lamp, was very small during the period that the heterogeneous stimulus matching Abbot-Priest sunlight was used. The exact specification of the other heterogeneous stimuli is not important.
  20. Reference 1, p. 559.
  21. Priest, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 306 (1926).
  22. Haupt, J. Exp. Psych. 5, 347 (1922).
  23. Purdy, Brit. J. Psych. 21, part 3, 283 (1931).
  24. Cf. Priest, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 306 (1926).
  25. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 72 (1932).

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