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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 43, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 1953
  • pp: 1153–1157

New Optical Glasses with Good Transparency in the Infrared

RUDOLF FRERICHS  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 43, Issue 12, pp. 1153-1157 (1953)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.43.001153


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Abstract

Optical glasses were produced using arsenic trisulfide as a network former and different sulfides as network modifiers. These glasses transmit infrared up to 12–13 microns in thicknesses useful for optical purposes. The transmission of glassy selenium was determined up to 21 microns and a few composite selenium glasses were investigated.

Citation
RUDOLF FRERICHS, "New Optical Glasses with Good Transparency in the Infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1153-1157 (1953)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-43-12-1153


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References

  1. G. W. Morey, The Properties of Glass (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1938), p. 75. J. M. Stevens, Progress in the Theory of the Physical Properties of Glass (Elsevier, New York, 1948), p. 50f.
  2. G. W. Morey, reference 1, p. 74; J. M. Stevels, reference 1, p. 4.
  3. For instance D. C. Stockbarger, Disc. Faraday Soc. 5, 294 (1949); A. C. Menzies and J. Skinner, ibid 5, 306 (1949). Very promising results have been obtained with germanium and silicon single crystals, whose high transmissivity in the infrared has been recently reported: M. Becker and H. Y. Fan, Phys. Rev. 76, 1530 (1949).
  4. W. H. Zachariasen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 54, 3841 (1932); Chem. Phys. 3, 162 (1935).
  5. B. E. Warren and J. Biscoe, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 49 (1935).
  6. J. Biscoe and B. E. Warren, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 287 (1938).
  7. Glasses have been made which are free of silica but contain La2O3. They transmit in 2 mm thickness a small percentage up to 5.8µ. Furthermore GeO2 offers some possibilities to extend the transmission farther into the infrared; Natl. Bur. Standards Report, No. 10 (March, 1950).
  8. Gmelin-Kraut, Handbuch der anorganischen Cenie (Verlag Chemie, Berlin); J. W. Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1928). The glass formation in nonsilicate systems has been recently thoroughly discussed by W. A. Weyl, J. Chem. Educ. 27, 520 (1950).
  9. It is interesting to note that SiS2 forms one-dimensional macromolecules. E. Zintl and K. Lossen [Z. phys. Chem. 174, 301, (1935)] have shown that such chains are to be expected if one implies that the ratio of the radii of Si to S is so large that four S ions cannot form tetrahedra around the silicon ion.
  10. Gmelin-Kraut, Germanium, 8th edition, No. 45, p. 52.
  11. W. H. Zachariasen, J. Chem. Phys. 4, 618 (1936), has shown that GeS2 forms a network analogous to SiO2
  12. An early, but only qualitative, observation of good transmission of A2S3 in the infrared is published in a paper of C. Schultz-Sellack, Ann. Physik. 139, 162 (1870). This author found that a number of halogenides and sulfides have rather good transmission for the total radiation emitted by a blackbody of 100°C. He observed high transmission for mixtures of arsenic trisulfide and sulfur. It might be mentioned that this author already stated that thin plastic sheets of AgCl have very high transmission for this radiation, a discovery which has been recently attributed to Sir James Dewar. See A. C. Menzies and J. Skinner, Disc. Faraday Soc. 311, Appendix (1950).
  13. U. S. Patent 1981232, Chem. Abstracts 29, 522, (1936).
  14. A. M. Taylor and E. K. Rideal, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A115, 589 (1927).
  15. A. J. Harrison, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 30, 363 (1947).
  16. Boeticher, Plieth, Reuber-Kurbis, and Stranski, Z. inorg. Chem. 266, No. 6, 302 (1951).
  17. Gmclin-Kraut, Arsen No. 17, 8th edition, p. 426.
  18. Tl2S+AS2S3 form a series of homogeneous compounds from pure A2S3 to 62 percent AS2S3+38 percent Tl2S. L. F. Hawley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 29, 1011 (1907).
  19. H. S. Merwin and E. S. Larsen, Am. J. Sci. 34, 42 (1912), report on the application of selenium-sulfur glasses as immersion media for the determination of large refractive indices of crystals. Glasses rich in selenium remain glassy for a long time; glasses rich in sulfur recrystallize easily.
  20. Recently H. A. Gibbie and C. G. Cannon reported the high transmission of amorphous selenium between 1 and 25 microns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 277 (1952). See also Schultz-Sellack, reference 12.
  21. The author is much indebted to Dr. K. P. Yates of the Physics section of Pure Oil Company for a measurement of the transmission of glassy selenium between 12.8 and 21µ.
  22. G. W. Morey, reference 1, p. 74.
  23. W. A. Fraser succeeded in making optical glasses of the triaxial system: As2S3, As2Se3, As2Te3 [W. A. Fraser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 823A (1953). Note added in proof.—Unpublished measurements of the index of refraction of As2S3 glass between 6438A and 11 microns made at the National Bureau of Standards are contained in a leaflet, "Servofrax" (arsenic trisulfide glass), of the Servo Corporation of America, 20–20 Jericho Turnpike, New Hyde Park, New York.

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