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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 4, Iss. 6 — Nov. 1, 1920
  • pp: 448–486




JOSA, Vol. 4, Issue 6, pp. 448-486 (1920)

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  1. Cf. papers by Koenig and Brodhun (see Appendix II, this paper) and Webster’s International Dictionary, 1910 ed.
  2. Rose’s instrument could not, however, have been used by trichromatic observers as the leucoscope is, because he prescribes a fixed thickness of quartz of only 5 mm. (Archiv für path. Anat. 28, p. 36), whereas from about two to four times this thickness is necessary to make use of the leucoscope principle. (See Section 1–2 below.)
  3. There appears to be some doubt and controversy as to the relative contributions of Kitao, and his master, Helmholtz, in the original design and naming of the instrument. (Cf. last section of Kitao’s second paper. For reference, see Appendix II.)
  4. See bibliography, Appendix II to this paper.
  5. Ann. der Phy. und Client., 17, pp. 1003–1008; year 1882.
  6. "The carbon filament lamp was developed about the year 1878 …"—Solomon: "Electric Lamps," p. 95; London, 1908.
  7. The author is indebted to his former associate, Mr. P. V. Wells, for having first directed his attention to the leucoscope. Mr. Wells happened to notice Koenig’s paper in the Annalen der Physik while searching the literature on another subject.
  8. Norris and Oliver: System of Diseases of the Eye, Vol. II ("Detection of Color Blindness," Wm. Thompson), P. 347. Tscherning: "Physiologic Optics," Eng. trans, by Weiland, p. 270; The Keystone Press, Philadelphia, 1904.
  9. For example, G. K. Burgess, Block, Hyde, H. E. Ives, L. A. Jones, P. D. Foote. Cf. also Appendix II to this paper.
  10. Cf. Appendix II.
  11. Schmidt and Haensch, Cf. Zeit. fiir Instk., 3, p. 20, Jan., 1883.
  12. For diagrams of design, consult any one of the following papers: Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem., 17, p. 990; Koenig: Zeit. für Instk., 3, p. 20; Brodhun: Ann. der Phy. und Chem., 34, p. 897.
  13. Cf. Appendix I and Figs. 13 and 14, this paper.
  14. In some cases the obvious modern interpretation of the conclusions of the original papers has been restated in modern terms.
  15. Brodhun: See Appendix II for reference.
  16. Kitao : Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 29–31.
  17. Kitao : Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 6 and 21.
  18. Zur Farbenlehre, p. 21, and Ab. Tok. Univ., 12, pp. 30–31.
  19. Rose.Koenig: Centb. für Prak. Augenheilk., 8, pp. 375–377. Brodhun: Ann. der Phy. und Chem., 34, p. 918.
  20. Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem., 17, pp. 1003–1008. Kitao: Abh. Tokio University No. 12, pp. 34–58.
  21. Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem., I7, pp. 1001–1002.
  22. Ann. der Phy. und Chem., 17, p. 1001.
  23. Koenig: Ann. der Phy. und Chem., 17, p. 1004.
  24. Koenig’s determination of visibility, the earliest that is now given any consideration, was not made until about 1890.
  25. Wien’s distribution law was published in 1896; Rayleigh’s, in 1900; Planck’s, in 1900. The scale of color temperature has been established only in very recent years by Hyde and others.
  26. I. G. Priest, P. D. Foote and H. J. McNicholas. Visibility by Coblentz and Emerson, B. S. Sci. Pap. 303.
  27. For further details, see also II below.
  28. Ann. der Phy. mid Chem., 17, p. 999.
  29. Ann. der Phy. und Chem., 17, p. 1004.
  30. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A., 212, p. 287; year 1912–13.
  31. Only color temperatures between about 1700° and 2400° K are referable directly to Hyde’s scale as established by the Nela Research Laboratory. Light of spectral distribution corresponding to temperatures above 2400° K is obtained directly from gas-filled lamps and by rotatory dispersion as explained under 11-2 below. Temperatures below 1700° K are from a small black body. See also 11-2 below.
  32. Leo Arons. Ann. der Phy. (4), 39, pp. 545–568; 1912.
  33. It is now planned to have a new model instrument constructed in the Bureau of Standards instrument shop.
  34. This radiator was made of a sillimanite crucible within an outer crucible of alundum, the space between being filled with fused alumina. All sides except the aperture were heated electrically by a heater of platinum-rhodium wire. This furnace was cemented with alundum cement to give practically a one-piece furnace. It was supported on four porcelain legs about 15 cm long; and was freely exposed to the air. The dimensions were: inside diameter, 23 mm; inside length on line of sight, 30 mm; and aperture, 12 mm.
  35. Hyde, Forsythe and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2), 13, pp. 157–158, 1919; Phy. Rev. (2), 14, p. 379, 1919. Coblentz: Joum. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401; September, 1919. B. S. Sci. Pap. 362, Feb., 1920.
  36. Cf. Arons: Ann. der Phy. (4), 33, PP. 810–819, year 1910. Priest: Phy. Rev. (2), 10, pp. 208–212, year 1917; Phy. Rev. (2), 11, p. 502, year 1918; Phy. Rev. (2), 15, pp. 538–539, year 1920; and forthcoming papers "The Application of Rotatory Dispersion to Colorimetry," … See also Appendix I, this paper.
  37. Cf. Hyde, Forsythe and Cady: Phy. Rev. (2), 13, pp. 157–158, 1919; Phy. Rev. (2), 14, p. 379, 1910. Coblentz: Jour. Frank. Inst., pp. 399–401, Sept., 1919; B. S. Sci. Pap. No. 362, Feb., 1920.
  38. Bull. B. S., 13, p. 363; year 1916.
  39. Letter and Report on Calibration, Nela Research Laboratory to Bureau of Standards, March 8, 1920.
  40. Cf. also Arons: Ann. der Phy. (4), 39, p. 545.
  41. Cf. discussion of disadvantages of instrument under II above.
  42. B. S. Sci. Pap. 303, PP. 184–185.
  43. Similar calibrations for a number of observers of known visibility have just been completed with the same apparatus by C. M. Blackburn under the author’s direction. Time has not yet been available to reduce and fully study these data. They will be published later. In the meantime, we refrain from attempting to make any correlation between the personal equations of visibility and leucoscope reading.
  44. Zur Farbenlehre, pp. 21–29.
  45. LeChatelier and Boudouard: "High Temperature Measurements," English translation by Burgess, New York, 1901, pages 158–160. Burgess and LeChatelier: "High Temperature Measurements," page 348, New York, 1912.
  46. In the only Mesuré and Nouel instrument which the author has examined, the thickness of quartz is about II mm. This would be sufficient to use in leucoscopic observations; but is probably not the most favorable thickness (about 20 mm.).As a pyrometer, the leucoscope might with some reason be called the "duplex or double image sensitive tint pyrometer."
  47. Loc. cit.
  48. Information to the author from Dr. P. D. Foote.
  49. The author agrees with Hyde and Forsythe (Jour. Frank. Inst., 183, pp. 353–354; 1917) that color temperature affords the most suitable basis for the color grading of illuminants.
  50. Centre of gravity or so-called "centre of area "of "luminosity curve" of the source.
  51. Phil. Trans. R. S., London, A, 212, pp. 288–289; year 1912–13.
  52. B. S. Sci. Pap., No. 303, PP. 184–185.
  53. Centre of gravity or so-called "centre of area" of "luminosity curve."
  54. Cf. Priest: "Relation Between Quality of Color and Spectral Distribution," Jour. Op. Soc. Am., Sept., 1920.
  55. For computation of sin2. (ø - 20αλ) and cos2. (ø - 20αλ see Appendix I.
  56. Ann. der Phy. und Chem., 17, p. 1004.
  57. Cf. discussion of Fig. 15, in third paragraph following this.
  58. Trans. I. E. S., April, 1910, p. 193.
  59. Priest: Phy. Rev. (2), 11, p. 502, Fig. 1.
  60. Letter, Kimball to Priest, Oct. 1, 1920.
  61. Smithsonian Physical Tables, 7th Ed. (year 1920). Table 549. p. 418.
  62. Ann. der Phy. und Client., 34, p. 918.
  63. Brodhun: Loc. cit., Appendix II, this paper.
  64. Computed from Lowry’s rotatory dispersion data, Phil. Trans., Roy. Soc, Lon. A., 212, pp. 288–289.

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