OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 50, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 1960
  • pp: 1153–1157

Optics InfoBase > JOSA > Volume 50 > Issue 12 > Attainment of High Resolution with Diffraction Gratings and Echelles

Attainment of High Resolution with Diffraction Gratings and Echelles

GEORGE R. HARRISON and GEORGE W. STROKE  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 50, Issue 12, pp. 1153-1157 (1960)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1022 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The availability of increased resolution, dispersion, and luminosity from plane gratings at high angles of incidence and diffraction is discussed from the standpoints of theory and practice. Reduction in the resolution given by actual gratings at angles above a certain maximum for a given wavelength usually arises from close-lying line-satellites originating from ruling defects. Variation of satellite displacements and intensities with wavelength gives rise to such undesirable effects as error of coincidence. The bright 10-in. gratings now produced by the M.I.T. interferometrically controlled engine can be used effectively at very high angles (12th-order green from 7500 grooves per inch), but as in all gratings the angle above which resolution fails to increase further diminishes with decreasing wavelength. The pattern dimensions and intensities of satellites are here discussed qualitatively as they affect resolution in various spectral regions, and are quantitatively discussed by one of us elsewhere.

The use of gratings and echelles in series for increasing spectroscopic efficiency is discussed, and spectrograms made with two echelles thus used are shown. Two gratings used in series transmit only a narrow wavelength range at one setting because of the wide angular spread of the beam from the first disperser. An echelle beam, on the other hand, spreads but little, and can be caught on a second echelle to give broad spectral coverage. Two echelles used in series give high speed and resolution without the careful relative adjustment required to produce a satisfactory grating mosaic.

GEORGE R. HARRISON and GEORGE W. STROKE, "Attainment of High Resolution with Diffraction Gratings and Echelles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1153-1157 (1960)

Sort:  Author  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. G. R. Harrison, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 102, 483 (1958); (a) G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. P. Davis, and Y. Yamada, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 205 (1959).
  2. A. Keith Pierce, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 6 (1957); (a) G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, and G. W. Stroke, ibid. 47, 15 (1957).
  3. See G. R. Harrison, R. C. Lord, and J. R. Loofbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1948), or footnote references la or 2a.
  4. Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81 and 193 (1874).
  5. H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893).
  6. A. A. Michelson, Nature 88, 362 (1912).
  7. H. A. Rowland, Physical Papers (Johns Hopkins Press, Homewood, Baltimore, Maryland, 1902).
  8. G. W. Stroke, Preprints and Proceedings Interferometry Symposium, N.P.L., Teddington, June 10, 1959; Paper No. 5, 5th Conf. I.C.O. Stockholm, August 24, 1959; Rev. opt., 39, 291 (1960).
  9. J. A. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 434 (1922).
  10. R. W. Wood (unpublished communication in 1932).
  11. H. D. Babcock and H. W. Babcock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 776 (1951).
  12. E. Ingelstam and E. Djurle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 572 (1953).
  13. A. A. Michelson, Astrophys. J. 18, 278 (1903).
  14. E. Ingelstam and E. Djurle, footnote reference 12 and Arkiv Fysik 4, 423 (1952); 6, 463 (1953).
  15. G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 30 (1955).
  16. Pierce gives a similar plot at one wavelength for an 8-in. Mt. Wilson grating, in which the satellites are somewhat stronger, are more numerous, and cover a broader range; (a) A. K. Pierce, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 10 (1957).
  17. G. R. Harrison, S. P. Davis, and H. J. Robertson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 853 (1953).
  18. D. Richardson (verbal communication, 1959).
  19. J. Walsh, Nature 167, 810 (1951); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 94 (1952).
  20. E. Hulthén and E. Lind, Arkik Fysik. 2, 253 (1950); E. Hulthén and H. Neuhaus, ibid. 8, 343 (1954).
  21. D. H. Rank and T. A. Wiggins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 983 (1952).
  22. F. A. Jenkins and L. W. Alvarez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 699 (1952).
  23. G. W. Stroke and H. H. Stroke, Quart. Progr. Rept., Research Lab. of Electronics, Mass. Inst. Technol. October 15, 1954, p. 54.
  24. G. R. Harrison, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 522 (1949); G. R. Harrison and C. L. Bausch, Proceedings of the London Conference of the Optical Institute (Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 1950); G. R. Harrison, J. E. Archer, and J. Camus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 706 (1925); G. R. Harrison, S. P. Davis, and H. J. Robertson, ibid. 43, 853 (1953).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited