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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 18, Iss. 4 — Jul. 1, 1929
  • pp: 305–329

ON SOME VACUUM RECORDING GAUGES

K. C. D. HICKMAN

JOSA, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 305-329 (1929)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.18.000305


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Citation
K. C. D. HICKMAN, "ON SOME VACUUM RECORDING GAUGES," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 305-329 (1929)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-18-4-305


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References

  1. No original reference could be found in 19th Century scientific literature.
  2. Comp. rend. 99, p. 1153; 1884; Annales de chimie, 28, pp. 456, 464; 1883.
  3. One thousandth of a millimeter of mercury.
  4. Scheel and Heuse. Z. Instrumentenkunde, 29, p. 14; 1909.
  5. See Found and Dushman, Phys. Rev., 17, p. 7; 1921.
  6. W. Sutherland, Phil. Mag. 43, p. 83; 1897; I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 1, p. 337; 1913; 5, p. 212; 1915.
  7. Leithauser and Johansen, Ann. Physik, 24, p. 25; 1907.
  8. See M. A. Bertin. Annales de chimie 5th series, 19, p. 231; 1880.
  9. See S. Dushman, High Vacua; Schenectady, p. 88; 1922.
  10. Baly and Ramsay, Phil. Mag., 5, 38, p. 301; 1884.
  11. Phil. Trans. 196A, p. 205; 1901.
  12. Ann. Physik, (4), 21, p. 320; 1906.
  13. Phys. Rev., 13, p. 321; 1919.
  14. Monatshefte Chem., 20, p. 909; 1899.
  15. Phil, Mag., 1, p. 79; 1901.
  16. On removal of a central section of the bath it is apparent that the system would remain undisturbed, so that two narrow tubes connected at the bottom would serve equally well as mercury containers.
  17. The material composing the tube must not be hygroscopic or give off gases which tarnish mercury or appreciably spoil the vacuum. Of a large number of substances tried, the kind of rubber tubing used to connect automobile wind screen wipers has been found the least objectionable. It should be the smallest procurable (⅛-inch internal diameter), of a pure gray color, and should not smell of rubber. It has been recommended to boil such tubing in dilute caustic soda to remove sulfur, but we have found it better to thread through the tube five or six strands of fine copper wire taken from lamp extension cord. A length of the threaded tube about two inches longer than the shortest required is then cut and the end slipped onto the connections so that the tube takes a slightly arched path. Any sulfur subsequently diffusing from the rubber attacks the copper and leaves the mercury untarnished. The copper wire may be made even more efficient by bathing it momentarily in 5% nitric acid containing a little mercurous nitrate, washing, and drying.
  18. See p. 327 relative to leveling precautions.
  19. To be published shortly.
  20. It should be emphasized that the hysteresis curve is obtained by taking the gauge from atmospheric pressure down to a good vacuum and then admitting gas until the pointer has left the scale. There is thus recorded one complete deflection in either direction. When the gauge is in permanent use it becomes matured to vacuum conditions and the hysteresis for one or two centimeters' deflection from the mean reading is not detectable. The hysteresis curves shown in this paper represent abnormal and extreme cases.
  21. Although this form of gauge is compensated by a spring, nine-tenths of the load has been removed by elimination of the dash pot. A well made clock spring working under small stress remains sufficiently constant for use in this apparatus.
  22. The readings are, of course, inverted, a high barometer giving a low swinging cradle. Correction can he made by securing the pointer to the other end.
  23. This will be found a very valuable addition to all barometers.

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