OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 25, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1935
  • pp: 4–20

The Effect of Temperature upon Reciprocity Law Failure in Photographic Exposure

J. H. WEBB  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 4-20 (1935)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (2864 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Measurements of the effect of temperature variation on the reciprocity failure curves were made for several types of emulsions and for radiation of several different wavelengths. The effect of temperature variation upon emulsion sensitivity is shown to be very strongly dependent upon the intensity level at which the exposures are made. At very low intensities it is found that the speeds of certain emulsions can be increased several fold by lowering the temperature. An analysis of the data suggests a possible manner of division of the reciprocity curves into two component parts which, presumably, correspond to two different modes of utilization of the exposure in the formation of the latent image. A theoretical formulation based on the foregoing analysis yields the Kron-Halm catenary equation for representing the reciprocity failure curves.

J. H. WEBB, "The Effect of Temperature upon Reciprocity Law Failure in Photographic Exposure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 4-20 (1935)

Sort:  Author  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. W. DeW. Abney, Phot. News 28, 315 (1884).
  2. A. and L. Lumière, Comptes rendus 128, 359 (1899).
  3. J. Precht and A. Schellen, Arch. wiss. Phot. 1, 58 (1899).
  4. G. Dalezki, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 18, 233 (1919).
  5. A. Zimmern, Comptes rendus 174, 453 (1922).
  6. E. S. King, Pboto-Beacon 17, 267 (1905).
  7. R. J. Wallace, Astrophys. J. 28, 39 (1908).
  8. J. Eggert and F. Luft, Veröffent. wiss. Zentral-Lab. Phot. Agfa 2, 9 (1931).
  9. S. E. Sheppard, E. P. Wightman and R. F. Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).
  10. L. A. Jones,. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 305 (1923).
  11. W. W. Coblentz, Bull. Bur. Standards 11, 87 (1915).
  12. J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 316 (1933).
  13. E. Kron, Publ. Astrophys. Obs. zu Potsdam, No. 67, (1913).
  14. E. Kron, reference 13; J. Halm, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 75, 150 (1915); 78, 379 (1918); L. A. Jones and E. Huse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1079 (1923); 11, 319 (1925); L. A. Jones, V. C. Hall and E. Huse, ibid. 12, 321 (1926); L. A. Jones and V. C. Hall, ibid. 13, 443 (1926); L. A. Jones, V. C. Hall and R. M. Briggs, ibid. 14, 223 (1927).
  15. J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 157 (1933); 23, 316 (1933).
  16. L. Silberstein and J. H. Webb, Phil. Mag. 18, 1 (1934).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited