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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 35, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 1945
  • pp: 268–271

Tests for the Detection and Analysis of Color-Blindness


JOSA, Vol. 35, Issue 4, pp. 268-271 (1945)

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The Ishihara test for color-blindness, taken as a representative type of polychromatic tests, fails to give more than a superficial evaluation of the state of an observer’s color vision. It can be utilized as a good rough screening test for red-green color blindness, but in so doing most of the plates could be discarded. The results obtained are dependent to a large extent upon the illuminant used, and this fact militates against the deuteranomalous observer. The test gives neither an adequate qualitative (type of defect) nor quantitative (extent of defect) diagnosis, and may give a wrong diagnosis. Results obtained by this test should be discounted unless verified by other modern types of tests.

LEGRAND H. HARDY, GERTRUDE RAND, and M. CATHERINE RITTLER, "Tests for the Detection and Analysis of Color-Blindness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 268-271 (1945)

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  1. Ishihara, S., Tests for Colour-Blindness (Handaya, Tokyo, Hongo Harukicho, 1917).
  2. Clark, J. H., "The Ishihara test for color blindness," Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 5, 269–276 (July, 1924).
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  6. American Optical Company, Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates for Testing Color Perception (Beck Engraving Company, Philadelphia and New York, 1940).
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  8. Hardy, L. H., "Single judgment test for red-green discrimination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 512–514 (1943).
  9. Nagel, W. A., "Zwei Apparate für die augenärztliche Funktionsprüfung. Adaptometer und kleines Spektralphotometer (Anomaloskop), Zeits. f. Augenheilk. 17, 201–222 (1907).

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