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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 35, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 1945
  • pp: 532–544

Ultraviolet Absorption Method for the Determination of Polyunsaturated Constituents in Fatty Materials

BROOKS A. BRICE and MARGARET L. SWAIN  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 35, Issue 8, pp. 532-544 (1945)

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BROOKS A. BRICE and MARGARET L. SWAIN, "Ultraviolet Absorption Method for the Determination of Polyunsaturated Constituents in Fatty Materials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 532-544 (1945)

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  1. J. H. Mitchell, Jr., H. R. Kraybill, and F. P. Zscheile, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 15, 1 (1943).
  2. B. W. Beadle and H. R. Kraybill, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66, 1232 (1944).
  3. T. F. Bradley and D. Richardson, Ind. Eng. Chem. 34, 237 (1942).
  4. L. J. van der Hulst, Rec. Trav. Chim. des Pays-Bas 54, 639, 644 (1935).
  5. A. Dingwall and J. C. Thomson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 56, 899 (1934).
  6. H. P. Kaufmann, J. Baltes, and S. Funke, Fette u. Seifen 45, 302 (1938).
  7. W. R. Brode, J. W. Patterson, J. B. Brown, and J. Frankel, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 16, 77 (1944).
  8. J. P. Kass, Protective and Decorative Coatings, edited by J. J. Matiello (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1944), Chap. 12.
  9. Kass (reference 8) gives 115 at 232 mµ for both 9,11 and 10,12 linoleic acids; Kerns, Belkengren, Clark, and Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 271 (1941) report 116 at 232 mµ for 10,12 linoleic acid; our measurements with a comparator on van der Hulst's curves (reference 4, Fig. 3, page 641 and Fig. 6, page 649) indicate values of 119 and 126 for 9,11 linoleic acid in hexane.
  10. Kass (reference 8) reports a value of 215 at 268 mµ for both β- and pseudo-eleostearic acids; Dingwall and Thomson (reference 5) about 189 for β-eleostearic acid in ethanol; our measurements with a comparator on van der Hulst's curve (reference 4, Fig. 5, page 642) indicates about 194 for β-eleostearic acid in hexane.
  11. Instability of preparations of α-eleostearic acid have been discussed by R. T. O'Connor, D. C. Heinzelman, A. F. Freeman, and F. C. Pack, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. (in press).
  12. D. T. Mowry, W. R. Brode, and J. B. Brown, J. Biol. Chem. 142, 671 (1942).
  13. In the absence of detailed data on the conjugated tetraene acid isolated, from isomerized arachidonic acid (reference 12),this constant was tentatively evaluated from data of Beadle and Kraybill (reference 2) for isomerized arachidonic acid. The authors are indebted to B. W. Beadle for the necessary data for this calculation.
  14. Neohexane, Phillips Petroleum Company, technical grade. Isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), Rohm and Haas, Bureau of Standards certified grade, is also a satisfactory solvent. The transparency of these solvents was improved greatly by passage through a column of silica gel; see M. M. Graff, R. T. O'Connor, and E. L. Skau, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 16, 556 (1944); also Nat. Bur. Stand. Tech. News Bull. No. 325, p. 37 (May 1944).
  15. Synthetic absolute methyl alcohol is also a suitable solvent. We are indebted to E. L. Borgģ śof the United States Rubber Company for suggesting its use.
  16. It is essential that all samples saponify or dissolve within one to two minutes after being dropped into the reaction tube. Animal fats and fatty acids saponify within a minute. Monohydric esters saponify less readily. This may be remedied by adding 0.1 percent of pure palmitic or stearic acids to the KOH-glycerol reagent after the preliminary heating at 200°. In the case of soap samples, prompt solution is accomplished by wetting the sample with 3 drops of water or glycerol, stirring it to a homogeneous mass, and dropping sample and glass stirring rod into the reaction tube.
  17. B. A. Brice, M. L. Swain, B. B. Schaeffer, and W. C. Ault, Oil and Soap (in press).

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