The investigations of Cruikshank have brought to the attention of American scientists different methods of analyzing the optical image, methods which were also suggested by A. Kerber and the author. However, all these methodS are, for the most part, restricted to the analysis of meridional rays.
In previous papers the author has shown the importance of the analysis of the diapoint configuration for the optical image. He here gives a simple formula to show how the diapoint deviations can be considered as the sum of errors originating at the single surfaces. In this way, and with the help of a series of diagrams, the lens designer can obtain an accurate picture of the effect of the single surface on all the rays traversing the optical system. Diagrams for two photographic lenses are included.
M. HERZBERGER, "Performance of an Optical System as the Sum of the Contributions of Its Construction Elements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 324-327 (1948)