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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 39, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 1949
  • pp: 723–728

A New Series of Microscope Objectives: II. Preliminary Investigation of Catadioptric Schwarzschild Systems

DAVID S. GREY  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 39, Issue 9, pp. 723-728 (1949)

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This paper presents a preliminary study of combining the Schwarzschild pair of mirrors with lenses of fused quartz and fluorite to obtain an ultraviolet microscope objective. It is found that the catadioptric Schwarzschild objective is superior to the catadioptric Newtonian objectives described in Paper I.

An objective using spherical surfaces and corrected from 220 mµ into the near infra-red is described. The obscuring ratio of this objective is 7 percent in area at NA 1.1.

DAVID S. GREY, "A New Series of Microscope Objectives: II. Preliminary Investigation of Catadioptric Schwarzschild Systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 723-728 (1949)

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  1. K. Schwarzschild, Theorie der Spiegelteskop (Gesellschaftder Wissenschaften zü Göttingen Math-Phys Classe N.F. iv, 2, 1905).
  2. This is the type of objective used by Brumberg and apparently computed by Gershgorin after suggestions by Maksutov; E. M. Brumberg, Nature (London) 152, 357 (1943), D. D. Maksutov, U.S.S.R. Pat. No. 40859 (1932). The Gershgorin-Maksutov objective does not appear to be truly a catadioptric modification. A weak lens is inserted between the convex mirror and the long conjugate focus. The function of this lens is to correct chromatic aberration caused by the cover slip rather than to provide an essential modification of the Schwarzschild mirrors. No detailed account of this design has been found.
  3. C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 41–49 (1947).
  4. R. Clark Jones, J. Acous. Soc. Am. 16, 1947–171 (1945).
  5. Experimental evaluation of the effect of obscuration has been reported by T. Dunham, Jr., Special Report No. 2, American Cancer Society Grant No. PH-1B (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) (1948). The general conclusions of Dr. Dunham's report are in harmony with the theoretical treatment presented in this paper.
  6. Mr. Stone is at present with the Bradford-Durfee Technical Institute, Fall River, Massachusetts.

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