OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 40, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1950
  • pp: 291–294

An Extension of Toraldo’s Theory of Phase Contrast I

L. IVAN EPSTEIN  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 40, Issue 5, pp. 291-294 (1950)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.40.000291


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (460 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The problem of phase contrast image formation with Köhler illumination is a special case of a more general problem which has been treated by Duffieux and his students: The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern due to the object is projected upon the phase pattern, and the diffraction pattern due to the latter constitutes the image. A semi-infinite plane covered with a uniform, transparent phase-shifting layer is to be regarded as a typical microscopic object. The variation in the appearance of the image as the light goes through different portions of the phase annulus is examined. The field is darkened on one side of the edge of the object and brightened up on the other side. If it is desired that the dark side shall be as dark as possible if a large portion of the annulus is filled with light, a quarter-wave phase shift must be introduced in the phase annulus. For light passing very close to the edge of the annulus, point-for-point image formation is no longer rigorously possible. As the annulus is made broader, the contrast becomes less pronounced.

Citation
L. IVAN EPSTEIN, "An Extension of Toraldo’s Theory of Phase Contrast I," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 291-294 (1950)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-40-5-291


Sort:  Author  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. Duffieux, Tirouflet, Guenoche, and Lansraux, Ann. de physique 19, 355 (1944). Note the misprint on p. 369: Eq. (43) should not contain the factor of ¼. Equation (41) is correct.
  2. G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento [9], 6, 30 (1949).
  3. M. Françon, Rev. optique 25, 257 (1946).
  4. J. Picht, Zeits. f. Instrumentenk 56, 363 (1936); 56, 481 (1936); 58, 1 (1938).
  5. Bennett, Jupnik, Osterberg, and Richards, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 65, 99 (1946).
  6. E. G. Ramberg, J. App. Phys. 20, 441 (1949).
  7. F. Zernike, Physica 9, 686, 974 (1942).
  8. R. Richter, Optik 2, 342 (1947).
  9. A. Rubinowicz, Ann. d. Physik 53, 257 (1917).
  10. J. Magliozzi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 982A (1947).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited