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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 40, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1950
  • pp: 314–316

Phase Contrast Microscopy for Opaque Specimens

JAMES R. BENFORD and RICHARD L. SEIDENBERG  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 40, Issue 5, pp. 314-316 (1950)

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Phase contrast microscopy is by now a familiar subject in the field of transmitted light microscopy. Its application in reflected light is more recent. Early systems for reflected light phase contrast either located the phase annulus directly in the objective focal plane, or else compromised on this desired location and placed it beyond the vertical illuminator, somewhere between aperture and field planes in the microscope. This paper describes a different approach to the problem, resulting in an instrument design which obviates the elaborate equipments required by the above-mentioned systems, requires only one phase annulus and one illuminating annulus for all objectives, and in which the phase annulus is located in the ideal aperture plane of the microscope.

JAMES R. BENFORD and RICHARD L. SEIDENBERG, "Phase Contrast Microscopy for Opaque Specimens," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 314-316 (1950)

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  1. Cuckow, Nature 159, 639 (1947).
  2. Cuckow, "The Phase Contrast Incident Light Microscope," Iron and Steel Inst. J. 161, 1 (1949).
  3. Jupnik, Osterberg, and Pride, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 710A (1946).
  4. Jupnik, Osterberg, and Pride, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 338 (1948).
  5. Taylor, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 69, 49 (1949).
  6. F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Physical Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1937), pp. 401–403.
  7. Industrial Diamond Review 6, 276 (1946).

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