OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 41, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 1951
  • pp: 760–770

Improved Color-Difference Formula, with Applications to the Perceptibility and Acceptability of Fadings

I. H. GODLOVE  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 41, Issue 11, pp. 760-770 (1951)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.41.000760


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1472 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A simple formula for computing fadings or other color differences from Munsell notations has been derived from one simple assumption. Experimental data for the relative visual magnitudes of the Munsell “value” and chroma steps have been incorporated into the formula. It has been tested with several sets of experimental data and found valid even for some large differences. A table of constants facilitates quick application. The formula has been applied to the computation of the color differences of a great many dyes changing in concentration only, for example, from 2 percent to 0.5 percent. This change is known in the textile industry as “on-tone” fading. The user of dyed fabrics dislikes changes of hue more than equally perceptible changes in saturation or lightness, so that acceptability and perceptibility are not identical; hence, the importance of on-tone fading. For the 2-0.5 percent case, hue change as a function of hue of the stronger dyeing gave a well-defined curve. Maximum hue changes occur at 2R and 8YR, with zero change between. The total change is lowest for yellows (explaining why dyers find it most difficult to judge their fastnesses) and highest in the blues. Other published formulas yield the reverse of this fact. The question whether fastness is in large part a matter of perceptibility of changes was examined. The graphs of perceptibility and of average light-fastness ratings, both as a function of hue, show little resemblance, indicating that the fastness ratings are not primarily due to mere concentration change.

Citation
I. H. GODLOVE, "Improved Color-Difference Formula, with Applications to the Perceptibility and Acceptability of Fadings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 760-770 (1951)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-41-11-760


Sort:  Author  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. I. H. Godlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 658 (1940).
  2. I. H. Godlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 396 (1951).
  3. A. C. Hardy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 360 (1938); J. L. Michaelson, ibid., 365.
  4. H. R. Davidson and L. W. Imm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 942 (1949).
  5. Newhall, Nickerson, and Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
  6. I. A. Balinkin, Bull. Am. Ceram. Soc. 20, 392 (1941); Am. J. Psychol. 52, 428 (1939).
  7. Dorothy Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 650 (1931); 25, 253 (1935); Textile Research 6, 505 (1936); Am. Dyestuff Rptr. 33, 252 (1944).
  8. B. R. Bellamy and S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 465 (1942).
  9. D. Nickerson, see reference 7; also Am. Dyestuff Rptr. 39, 541 (August 21, 1950).
  10. H. R. Davidson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).
  11. D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550 (1944).
  12. I. H. Godlove, Am. Dyestuff Rptr. 40 (Sept. 3, 1951).
  13. I. H. Godlove, Am. Dyestuff Rptr. (July 9, 1951).
  14. White, Vickerstaff, and Waters, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 55, 1 (1943); E. Waters; J. Soc. Dyers Colourists 59, 261 (1943).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited