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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 42, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 1952
  • pp: 572–579

The Luminous Directional Reflectance of Snow

W. E. KNOWLES MIDDLETON and A. G. MUNGALL  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 42, Issue 8, pp. 572-579 (1952)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.42.000572


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Abstract

By means of a specially constructed portable goniophotometer the directional reflectance of numerous surfaces of snow was measured during the winter of 1951–1952. While some samples reflected more nearly diffusely than others, all showed much specular reflection at high angles of incidence. An approximate theory of the specular reflection is given and its results compared with experiment. The experimental fact that the angle of maximum reflectance is greater than the angle of incidence is explained by the theory.

Citation
W. E. KNOWLES MIDDLETON and A. G. MUNGALL, "The Luminous Directional Reflectance of Snow," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 572-579 (1952)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-42-8-572


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References

  1. R. W. Gerdel, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 29, 366 (1948).
  2. R. W. Gerdel, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (N.V.) Part 1, 118 (1944).
  3. A. Gershun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 162 (1945).
  4. E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 17, 23 (1928).
  5. I. F. Hand and R. E. Lundquist, Monthly Weather Rev. 70, 22 (1942).
  6. N. N. Kalitin, Monthly Weather Rev. 58, 59 (1930).
  7. U. Nakaya and K. Hasikura, J. Faculty of Sci., Hokkaido Imperial University 1, 63 (1934). This paper has fourteen beautiful plates of snowflakes.
  8. Klein, Pearce, and Gold, Method of Measuring the Significant Characteristics of a Snow Cover, Ottawa, N.R.C. Tech. Mem. No. 18, November, 1950 (N.R.C. No. 2269).
  9. C. Seligman, Snow Structure and Ski Fields (MacMillan and Company, Ltd., London, 1936).
  10. A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932), p. 27.
  11. See Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 33, 1–18 (1892).

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