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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 47, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 1957
  • pp: 491–497

Transmission by Haze and Fog in the Spectral Region 0.35 to 10 Microns

A. ARNULF, J. BRICARD, E. CURÉ, and C. VÉRET  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 47, Issue 6, pp. 491-497 (1957)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.47.000491


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Abstract

Two independent methods were used: direct spectrophotometry through the transparent windows of the atmospheric gases, and measurement of the number and diameter of the water droplets, followed by a Mie-theory calculation of the spectral transmittance. Results from the two methods are in good agreement when the media are sufficiently homogeneous, as for a quiet haze or fog and artificial smoke.

The following kinds of atmospheres were considered: hazes (optical density per km in the visible spectrum is less than 2); a small number of small-drop fogs (optical density per km less than 10); evolving fogs (which have changing distributions of drop-diameters); nonevolving, slightly selective fogs; artificial smokes. In addition, some information is given on the statistical distribution of drop-diameters.

It was found that the transmission of haze increased markedly with increasing wavelength, from the visible to 10 microns, but this marked increase was not found for fogs.

Citation
A. ARNULF, J. BRICARD, E. CURÉ, and C. VÉRET, "Transmission by Haze and Fog in the Spectral Region 0.35 to 10 Microns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 491-497 (1957)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-47-6-491


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References

  1. A. Arnulf and A. Bayle, Rev. opt. 28, 691 (1949).
  2. Arnulf, Bricard, and Véret, Compt. rend. 230, 565 (1950) and 238, 503 (1954).
  3. Arnulf, Bricard, and Véret, Rev. opt. 33, 658 (1954); Nuovo cimento, Ser. 10, 2 (suppl.) 642 (1955).
  4. The question is fully discussed in W. E. K. Middleton's excellent book, Vision through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952).
  5. J. A. Stratton and H. G. Houghton, Phys. Rev. 38, 159 (1931).
  6. H. G. Houghton and W. R. Chalker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 955 (1949).
  7. J. C. Johnson, Physical Meteorology (Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1954).
  8. H. Dessens, Météorologie 321 (1947).
  9. J. Terrien and F. Desvignes, Rev. opt. 27, 451 (1948).
  10. H. Gaertner, U. S. Navy, Bureau of Ordnance, NavOrd Report 429 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1947).
  11. J. Bricard, Physique des Nuages (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1953).

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