Laboratory experiments have shown that the extent to which localized turbulence degrades photographic resolution is markedly dependent upon the location of the disturbance along the optical path. These experiments also indicate that the mean resolving power under such conditions increases with shutter speed. Comparable measurements made over outdoor ranges under average daytime conditions show that resolution increases with shutter speed at short distances, but becomes essentially independent of exposure time when the optical path is very long.
A. G. SMITH, M. J. SAUNDERS, and M. L. VATSIA, "Some Effects of Turbulence on Photographic Resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 755-756 (1957)