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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 48, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1958
  • pp: 339–343

Faraday Effect in Gases and Vapors. III

L. R. INGERSOLL and D. H. LIEBENBERG  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 48, Issue 5, pp. 339-343 (1958)

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Verdet constants over the spectral range 3635 A to 9875 A have now been measured for 11 gases and vapors (also Pyrex glass) in addition to the 22 previously reported. The list includes nitric oxide gas, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide; also the vapors of water, deuterium oxide, ethyl and methyl alcohols, ether, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulfide. Nitric oxide shows a negative rotation and a larger Verdet constant and Faraday dispersion than any other of the (gaseous) materials tested except carbon disulfide vapor.

For comparison purposes the Verdet constants of the latter eight substances on the list have been measured for the liquid state over the same spectral range. The ratio of Verdet constants for water in the liquid and vapor states is 2 to 5 times larger than for any other material tested. Deuterium oxide in vapor or liquid states shows about the same Verdet ratio to water, viz 0.97, as deuterium and hydrogen gases. Faraday temperature coefficients have also been determined. For constant volume conditions these are very small save for nitric oxide gas. A theoretical explanation of the rotation of nitric oxide is attempted.

L. R. INGERSOLL and D. H. LIEBENBERG, "Faraday Effect in Gases and Vapors. III," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 339-343 (1958)

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  1. L. R. Ingersoll and D. H. Liebenberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 538 (1956).
  2. The terms "gas" and "vapor" are used here in the ordinary sense.
  3. L. R. Ingersoll and D. H. Liebenberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 566 (1954).
  4. See N. E. Dorsey, Properties of Ordinary Water-Substance (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1940), p. 390.
  5. Samuel Steingiser, Magneto-Optic Rotation, Relationship to Chemical Structure (thesis, University of Connecticut, 1949), p. 109.
  6. For gases the only Faraday temperature coefficient directly measurable was under conditions of constant density; for liquids under constant pressure. By "constant density" liquid coefficient is meant merely the constant pressure coefficient corrected for density changes. Actual measurements on liquids under true constant density conditions would be difficult.
  7. A. Okazaki, Proc. Phys.-Chem. Soc. Japan 21, 753 (1939).
  8. For densities of D2O see Heiks, Barnett, Jones, and Orban, J. Phys. Chem. 58, 489 (1954).
  9. International Critical Tables, 6, 425 (1929).
  10. Slack, Reeves, and Peoples, Phys. Rev. 46, 726 (1934).
  11. Some years ago I gave Professor de Mallemann some preliminary results on water vapor [see R. de Mallemann, Compt. rend. 235, 1263 (1952)]. Unfortunately, because of our imperfect technique at that time and an inexcusable error on my part, the values were some 20% lower than they should have been. L.R.I.
  12. Such comparisons have been greatly assisted through the kindness of Dr. Jean Grange of the de Mallemann laboratory at the University of Nancy, who furnished a preliminary copy of his doctorate thesis. This gives an excellent survey of the field.
  13. R. de Mallemann and J. Grange, Compt. rend. 241, 5 (1955). We want to express our thanks for a private communication from Professor de Mallemann on several points in connection with this theory
  14. Robert Serber, Phys. Rev. 41, 489 (1932).
  15. G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1950) p. 558.
  16. Curiously a single term of the diamagnetic form with the ionization frequency (ν1=2.304×1015) chosen as the resonant frequency (see reference 1) fits the data within 4% over the measured spectral range.
  17. J. H. Van Vleck and M. H. Hebb, Phys. Rev. 46, 17 (1934).
  18. H. Bizette, Ann. phys. Ser. 12, 1, 232 (1946).
  19. Wiersma, de Haas, and Capel, Leiden Communs. 212b (1930).
  20. J. H. Van Vleck, Phys. Rev. 31, 587 (1928).

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