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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 48, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1958
  • pp: 354–357

Nephelometer for the Measurement of Volume Scattering Function in Situ

JOHN E. TYLER and W. H. RICHARDSON  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 48, Issue 5, pp. 354-357 (1958)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.48.000354


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Abstract

A submarine nephelometer has been built for use in measuring the volume scattering function of natural waters. Theory and construction details of the optical system are given, including pertinent data for the photodetector used. The instrument is capable of measuring volume scattering function between angles of 20° and 170° in typical coastal waters. Results of preliminary tests with the instrument are given.

Citation
JOHN E. TYLER and W. H. RICHARDSON, "Nephelometer for the Measurement of Volume Scattering Function in Situ," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 354-357 (1958)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-48-5-354


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References

  1. For photometric symbols see, Committee on Colorimetry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 245–266 (1944).
  2. J. M. Waldram, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 10, 147–188 (1945); W. E. K. Middleton, Vision through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), pp. 201–202.
  3. This is an important feature since some of the calibration procedures are much more easily accomplished in air.
  4. B. S. Pritchard and H. R. Blackwell, Final Report No. 2557-2-F, Vision Research Laboratories, July (1957); Engineering Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  5. Nonuniform flux distribution in the light beam, or nonuniform sensitivity in the beam of detectivity could be very troublesome in the determination of volume-scattering function since calibration procedures and computations are all based on uniform-flux and sensitivity distributions. The present instrument is not perfect in these respects but is tolerable.
  6. Monroe H. Sweet, J. Soc. Motion Picture and Television Engrs. 54, 35–62 (1950).
  7. The measuring head of optical instruments is here considered to be made up of a collector which is designed to accept light in accordance with some preconceived definition (e.g., radiance or irradiance), and a detector which may include the optical filter in the system. These components are joined by a "coupling" which must be designed to assure proper and constant sampling of the radiant flux for all lighting conditions that will be met in making measurements with the instrument. An important property of this coupling is its efficiency represented here by the symbol C
  8. This device removes air from the water as well as particulate matter larger than 2 µ.

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