OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 48, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 1958
  • pp: 439–444

Eye Fixations Recorded on Changing Visual Scenes by the Television Eye-Marker

J. F. MACKWORTH and N. H. MACKWORTH  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 48, Issue 7, pp. 439-444 (1958)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.48.000439


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1967 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

By the use of television techniques it is possible to record the position of a man’s gaze upon a picture of the scene at which he is looking. The corneal reflection of a light is picked up by a television camera, which magnifies the movement of the spot about 100 times. The scene at which the man is gazing is provided by a second television camera, and the corneal reflection is superimposed upon another television monitor also showing the same scene. By suitable calibration, this spot can be made to lie upon that part of the scene being regarded and the accuracy with which this can be done is within one or two degrees.Thus it is possible to see where a man is looking at any moment, and simultaneously to record the composite eye-scene picture by means of a motion picture camera. In addition to its practical uses, this method is particularly useful for answering such general questions as whether a subject always sees what he is directly looking at, what kind of cues catch his attention when he is searching, and what sort of changes in a display catch his attention. It is primarily intended for use with a moving display, as it records the point of view directly on to each state of the display. Successive glances therefore indicate the order in which particular parts of complex displays are selected, as well as the exact moment at which the gaze changes to a new position.

Citation
J. F. MACKWORTH and N. H. MACKWORTH, "Eye Fixations Recorded on Changing Visual Scenes by the Television Eye-Marker," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 439-444 (1958)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-48-7-439


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. S. B. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 782 (1949).
  2. R. Dodge, Psychol. Monogr. No. 35 (1907).
  3. R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1954).
  4. L. Carmichael and W. F. Dearborn, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1947).
  5. M. D. Vernon, The Experimental Study of Reading (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1931).
  6. M. Cesa-Bianchi, Giorn. psichiat e neuropatol. 4, 1 (1955).
  7. L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).
  8. Riggs, Armington, and Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315 (1954).
  9. H. C. Weston, Sight, Light and Efficiency (H. K. Lewis, London, 1949).
  10. W. R. Miles and E. Shen, J. Exptl. Psychol. 8, 344 (1925).
  11. H. H. Jasper, and R. Y. Walker, Science 74, 291 (1931).
  12. G. T. Buswell, How People Look at Pictures (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1935).
  13. H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 666 (1937).
  14. H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 564 (1940).
  15. H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 260 (1940).
  16. H. F. Brandt, The Psychology of Seeing (Philosophical Library, Inc., New York, 1945).
  17. P. R. Wendt, Psychol. Monogr. 66, No. 339 (1952).
  18. R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).
  19. F. W. Campbell (personal communication, 1957).
  20. Ditchburn, Fender, and Mayne (personal communication, 1957).
  21. N. H. Mackworth and J. F. Mackworth, Brit. J. Psychol. 49, 89 (1958).
  22. J. F. Mackworth and N. H. Mackworth, film entitled "Th Eye-Marker," Symposium on Automation at XVth International Congress of Psychology (1957).
  23. L. Carmichael, "Comprehension time, cybernetics and regressive eye movements in reading," XVth International Congres of Psychology (1957).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited