OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 48, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 1958
  • pp: 445–450

Basis for Judgments of Relative Brightness

RICHARD M. WARREN and ROSLYN P. WARREN  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 48, Issue 7, pp. 445-450 (1958)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.48.000445


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (835 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The hypothesis is offered that relative brightness judgments are based upon experience with the way the amount of light reflected by objects changes with their distance from the light source.

The experimental results support this hypothesis. One group of 40 subjects judged half brightness, and another 40 estimated the change in luminance corresponding to moving a hidden point light source to twice the distance from an illuminated standard field. Judgments of the two groups were equivalent.

Under stimulus conditions designed to represent the common visual situation (stimuli subtending wide visual angles, adaptation approximating stimulus levels), one quarter the standard luminance was correctly chosen for the effect of doubling distance from the source, and the same fraction was chosen for half brightness for all standard intensities (0.00086 to 87 millilamberts).

Under less familiar conditions similar to those employed for the bril scale (small stimuli with black backgrounds, indeterminate levels of adaptation) half brightness judgments were again equivalent to estimates of the effect of doubling distance from object to light source. These estimates were less than one-quarter standard luminance.

The hypothesis is discussed in terms of sensory scaling in general, and the neutral value and bril scales in particular.

Citation
RICHARD M. WARREN and ROSLYN P. WARREN, "Basis for Judgments of Relative Brightness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 445-450 (1958)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-48-7-445


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. G. F. Fechner, Elemente der Psychophysik (Breitkopf und Härtel, Leipzig, 1860), Erster Theil, p. 65.
  2. R. M. Warren and R. P. Warren, Am. J. Psychol. 69, 640 (1956).
  3. Warren, Sersen, and Pores (in preparation).
  4. H. Ebbinghaus, Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorgane 1, 320, pp. 323–324 (1890).
  5. W. Burzlaff, Z. Psychol. 119, 177 (1931).
  6. D. Katz, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Company Limited, London, 1935), p. 79.
  7. J. J. Gibson, The Perception of the Visual World (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1950), p. 183.
  8. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (Constable and Company, Ltd., London, 1926), p. 92.
  9. R. M. Hanes, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 438 (1949).
  10. R. M. Hanes, J. Exptl. Psychol 39, 719 (1949).
  11. F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 817 (1939).
  12. R. M. Hanes and S. B. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 363 (1948).
  13. An interesting individual was tested whose results were not included. He had done a great deal of experimental work in optics and so was familiar with the physical scales of light intensity. With Type B he estimated about half the physical intensity as half subjective brightness over the entire range (median value 48%), but with Type D his judgments were much lower (median value 20%).
  14. A. H. Munsell, The Atlas of the Munsell Color System (Wadsworth, Howland and Company, Boston, 1915), chart V.
  15. Priest, Gibson, and McNicholas, Tech. Papers Bur. Standards, No. 167 (1920).
  16. I. H. Godlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 419 (1933).
  17. Newhall, Nickerson, and Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
  18. It should be noted that the subcommittee, although it stated that the effect of background reflectance on value judgments was "found to be significant," recommended only one scale based upon papers viewed against a background of about 18% reflectance.
  19. R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1954), pp. 244–245.
  20. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 285.
  21. G. Ekman "A note on generalized psychophysical laws." Repts. from Psychol. Lab. Univ. Stockholm, No. 32 (1956), p. 5.
  22. W. C. Michels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 70 (1954).
  23. F. A. Geldard, The Human Senses (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1953), p. 30.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited