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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 49, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 1959
  • pp: 368–371

Measurement of Optical Clarity by Low-Angle Light Scattering

FRED W. BILLMEYER, JR.  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 49, Issue 4, pp. 368-371 (1959)

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Light scattering from small particles in liquids and transparent solids may lead to a loss in optical clarity. If the scattering particles are in the micron size range, the scattering is confined to small angles with respect to the direction of the incident light. The resulting phenomenon does not correlate with integrating sphere haze. Examples of this type of optical defect are occasionally observed in plastic sheet or film samples.

A photometer is described for the quantitative measurement of this type of light scattering. It measures scattered light photoelectrically at a 10° angle with an angular resolution of 1°. It is suitable for plant control applications as well as research and development. Visual estimates of optical clarity correlate well with instrumental low-angle light scattering.

FRED W. BILLMEYER, JR., "Measurement of Optical Clarity by Low-Angle Light Scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 368-371 (1959)

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  1. Standard Method of Test for Haze and Luminous Transmission of Transparent Plastics (American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia), designation: D 1003-52.
  2. A. C. Webber, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 785 (1957).
  3. C. K. Sloan, J. Phys. Chem. 59, 834 (1955).
  4. W. H. Aughey and F. J. Baum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 833 (1954).
  5. A commercial version of the LAS photometer is made by the Manufacturers Engineering and Equipment Corporation, York and Sunset Lane, Hatboro, Pennsylvania, with the trade-name "Scattermaster" Model 1.
  6. Other apparatus for measuring light scattering at low angles is described in reference 4 and by Plaza, Norris, and Stein, J. Polymer Sci. 24, 455 (1957).
  7. D. K. Carpenter and W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1955).
  8. F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., and C. B. deThan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4763 (1955).
  9. The LAS of a liquid is a practical measure of its scattering due to dust and dirt.
  10. J. H. Skinkle and W. W. Platt, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 31, 537 (1942).
  11. W. L. Gore, Statistical Methods for Chemical Experimentation (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York and London, 1953).
  12. D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York 1952), p. 225.

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