OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 50, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1960
  • pp: 44–47

New Reflectometer and Its Use for Whiteness Measurement

RICHARD S. HUNTER  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 50, Issue 1, pp. 44-47 (1960)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (716 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A new 0°45° blue- and green-light reflectometer has been built with S-4 vacuum phototubes in a ratio-measuring circuit. Where whiteness is of interest, materials are usually yellowish in hue. In these cases, precise reflectance measurements with just the blue and green tristimulus filters are adequate for whiteness determination. Investigators have found that, in general, yellowness detracts from perceived whiteness much more than does grayness. For best correlation with visual rankings, the green-minus-blue reflectance difference corresponding to yellowness should receive four-to-five times the weight of luminous (green) reflectance alone. Because inadequate blue reflectance detracts so strongly from perceived whiteness, widespread use is now made of blue fluorescing dyes for the whiteness enhancement of textiles, papers and plastics. These “fluorescent brighteners” absorb in the near ultraviolet and fluoresce in the blue. An ultraviolet-absorbing filter in the new instrument may be alternated between the sample-viewing and incident light beams to include, and then exclude the near-ultraviolet which excites fluorescence. It is thereby possible to obtain a measure of the contribution of these fluorescent brighteners to blue reflectance, and thence to whiteness.

RICHARD S. HUNTER, "New Reflectometer and Its Use for Whiteness Measurement," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 44-47 (1960)

Sort:  Author  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 536 (1940).
  2. R. S. Hunter, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) Circ. No. C429 (1942).
  3. L. G. Glasser and D. J. Troy. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 652 (1952).
  4. R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 985 (1958).
  5. R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 597 (1958).
  6. D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J. 100, 266 (1935); 103, 154 (1936).
  7. H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 (1950).
  8. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 188 (1934).
  9. K. Taube, Part of unpublished "Study of home-laundering methods" (Housing and Equipment Laboratory, Institute of Home Economics, U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Maryland).
  10. D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 418 (1939).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited