OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 52, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 1962
  • pp: 925–929

Environmental Clamping of Biological Systems: Pupil Servomechanism

LAWRENCE STARK  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 52, Issue 8, pp. 925-929 (1962)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (704 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A generalization of the “clamping” method is described and its application to the pupil light-reflex servomechanism illustrated. The relationship between this environmental clamping and more classical input-output analysis is demonstrated by the accuracy of predictions from the transfer function and is discussed theoretically. Separation of linear and nonlinear factors in system behavior in the oscillatory model has interesting experimental consequence.

LAWRENCE STARK, "Environmental Clamping of Biological Systems: Pupil Servomechanism," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 925-929 (1962)

Sort:  Author  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. L. Stark and P. M. Sherman, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 17 (1957).
  2. L. Stark, F. W. Campbell, and J. Atwood, Nature 182, 857 (1958).
  3. L. Stark, M. Iida, and P. A. Willis, Quart. Progr. Rept., Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT 60, 229 (1961).
  4. G. Marmont, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 34, 351 (1949).
  5. K. S. Cole, Arch. sci. physiol. 3, 253 (1949).
  6. J. L. Bower and P. M. Schultheiss, Introduction to the Design of Servomechanisms (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958).
  7. G. C. Newton, L. A. Gould, and J. F. Kaiser, Analytical Design of Linear Feedback Controls (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957).
  8. L. A. MacColl,. Fundamental Theory of Servomechanisms (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1945).
  9. H. M. James, V. B. Nichols, and R. S. Phillips, Theory of Servomechanisms (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1947).
  10. S. J. Mason, and H. G. Zimmermann, Electronic Circuits, Signals, and Systems (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960).
  11. L. Stark, Proc. Inst. Radio Engs., 47, 1925 (1959).
  12. L. Stark, and F. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 22, 158 (1959).
  13. W. S. Stiles, and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 112b, 428(1933).
  14. L. Stark, and T. N. Cornsweet, Science, 127, 588 (1958).
  15. See reference 6, p. 168.
  16. See reference 6, pp. 84–85.
  17. See reference 10, pp. 418–422, 572–574.
  18. W. R. Evans, Control System Dynamics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1954).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited