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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 54, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1964
  • pp: 289–300

Apparent Contrast of Objects on the Earth’s Surface as Seen from above the Earth’s Atmosphere

ROBERT S. FRASER  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 54, Issue 3, pp. 289-300 (1964)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.54.000289


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Abstract

The apparent contrast of objects lying on the surface of the earth, when observed in the visible spectrum from above the earth’s atmosphere, is calculated for three model atmospheres. The earth is illuminated by sunlight, and light is reflected from the earth’s surface according to Lambert’s law. The apparent contrast increases with increasing wavelength. The apparent contrast is lower when aerosols are in the atmosphere, than when the atmosphere is free of aerosols. The apparent contrast can be enhanced significantly, if the albedo of the object space is low, when an analyzer, such as a piece of Polaroid, is used in the optical system of the receiver.

Citation
ROBERT S. FRASER, "Apparent Contrast of Objects on the Earth’s Surface as Seen from above the Earth’s Atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 289-300 (1964)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-54-3-289


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References

  1. K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1960), pp. 275–467.
  2. "A Scientific Investigation into Photographic Reconnaissance from Space Vehicles," Appendix B of Report No. VF-1260-P-8, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., Buffalo, New York (1961); ASTIA No. AD 260694.
  3. S.Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford University Press, New York, 1950).
  4. Z. Sekera and E. V. Ashburn, "Tables Relating to Rayleigh Scattering of Light in the Atmosphere," NAVORD Report 2061, U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, Inyokern, California (1953).
  5. Z. Sekera and G. Blanch, "Tables Relating to Rayleigh Scattering of Light in the Atmosphere," Contract No. AF 19 (122)-239, University of California, Department of Meteorology, Los Angeles (1952).
  6. Z. Sekera, Advan. Geophys. 3, 43–104 (1956).
  7. R. S. Fraser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 157 (1964).
  8. Z. Sekera, Union Géodésique Géophys. Intern. Monogram 10, 66 (1961).

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