OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 54, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1964
  • pp: 380–386

Method for Measurement of Accommodation in the Cat

R. ELUL, P. L. MARCHIAFAVA, and L. NICOTRA  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA, Vol. 54, Issue 3, pp. 380-386 (1964)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.54.000380


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (951 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A technique for measuring changes in the refractive power of the eye in experimental animals is described. This technique makes use of near infrared beam collimated on the retina and recorded, after reflection from it, by a photocell system. The output of the photocell system is related linearly to the changes in accommodation. The effects of fluctuations in source intensity, and of electrical pickup of noise, are rendered negligible by a special arrangement of the photocells. The system offers high sensitivity and stability, without requiring mechanical or optical modulation of the infrared beam. It employs relatively inexpensive, commercially available components. The optical properties of the cat’s eye are discussed, as are also the requirements for application of this technique. The possibility of accommodation by axial movement of the lens, and measurement of such movement by the present system, are considered. A procedure for objective calibration in diopters is described. The technique has been employed in experimental work on the cat. The smallest biological signals are significantly greater than the threshold of the system, which is about 0.01 diopter.

Citation
R. ELUL, P. L. MARCHIAFAVA, and L. NICOTRA, "Method for Measurement of Accommodation in the Cat," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 380-386 (1964)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-54-3-380


Sort:  Author  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568 (1959).
  2. S. Duke-Elder, System of Ophthalmology. Vol. I. The Eye in Evolution (Henry Kimpton, London, 1958), pp. 638–666.
  3. H. Ripps, G. M. Breinin, and J. L. Baum, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 59, 176 (1961).
  4. A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Rev. Opt. 39, 195 (1960).
  5. E. F. Fincham, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 456 (1936).
  6. N. B. Chin and R. E. Horn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 60 (1956).
  7. T. C. D. Whiteside, Problems of Vision in Flight at High Altitude (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1957).
  8. J. W. Wulfeck, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 928 (1955.)
  9. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 268 (1959).
  10. N. Roth, Am. J. Optom. 39, 356 (1962).
  11. A. G. Bennett and J. L. Francis, "Visual Optics," in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press, New York, 1962), Vol. IV, pp. 3–208.
  12. Y. Le Grand, Optique Physiologique, Vol. I, La Dioptrique de l'Oeil et sa Correction (Editions Revue d'Optique, Paris 1952), cf. pp. 68–69.
  13. J. Affanni, P. L. Marchiafava, and B. Zernicki, Arch. Ital. Biol. 100, 297 (1962).
  14. H. Hartridge and K. Yamada, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 481 (1922).
  15. F. H. C. Marriott, V. B. Morris, and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. (London) 146, 179 (1959).
  16. P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, and G. J. Vakkur, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466 (1962).
  17. R. M. Boynton, J. M. Enoch, and W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 879 (1954).
  18. S. A. Talbot and S. W. Kuffler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 931 (1952).
  19. V. B. Morris and F. H. C. Marriott, Nature 190, 176 (1961).
  20. G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1326 (1962).
  21. F. Flamant, Rev. Opt. 34, 433 (1954).
  22. D. W. DeMott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 571 (1959).
  23. J. Krauskopf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1046 (1962).
  24. H. Hartridge and A. V. Hill, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B89, 58 (1915).
  25. R. A. Weale, Nature 173, 1049 (1954).
  26. R. Gunter, H. G. W. Harding, and W. S. Stiles, Nature 168, 293 (1951).
  27. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 30 (1953).
  28. H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1245 (1962).
  29. F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579 (1959).
  30. R. Elul and P. L. Marchiafava, Arch. Ital. Biol. (1964) (to be published).
  31. Note added in proof. Comprehensive information on the optical properties of the cat's eye became available since the present manuscript was submitted for publication: G. J. Vakkur, P. O. Bishop, and W. Kozak, Vision Res. 3, 289 (1963); G. J. Vakkur and P. O. Bishop, Vision Res. 3, 357 (1963).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited