OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 55, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 1965
  • pp: 177–184

New Blue Filter for the Colormaster Differential Colorimeter Based on Judd’s Modified Standard Observer

L. S. WHITE and A. E. JACOBSEN  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 55, Issue 2, pp. 177-184 (1965)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (917 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Color measurement of anatase and rutile pigmentations using various color-mixture functions has shown that Judd’s 1949 modification of the standard observer provides the closest agreement with visual perception. The effect of Judd’s modification is to change the Z¯ function and the short-wavelength lobe of the X¯ function, so that for a tristimulus filter colorimeter it is necessary to change only the blue filter. Such a blue filter has been designed for use with the Colormaster differential colorimeter. With this new filter, accurate color grading (in agreement with visual perception) can be made for titanium dioxide.

L. S. WHITE and A. E. JACOBSEN, "New Blue Filter for the Colormaster Differential Colorimeter Based on Judd’s Modified Standard Observer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 177-184 (1965)

Sort:  Author  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948).
  2. Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage.
  3. Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage, Proc. Eighth Session, Cambridge, England, 19–29 September 1931.
  4. D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 43, 227 (1949).
  5. D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 14, 41 (1935).
  6. G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
  7. K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Std. Sci. Paper 19, 131 (1923).
  8. Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America, The Science of Color (Thomas Y. Crowell, New York, 1953), p. 241.
  9. W. S. Stiles and J. B. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
  10. N. I. Speranskaya, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 7,424 (1959) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 7, 424 (1959)].
  11. CIE Proceedings, Colorimetry Report W-1.3.1, CIE No. 4 Paris (1960).
  12. Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage, Technical Committee No. 7, Colorimetry and Artificial Daylight, Report of Secretariat U. S. Committee (1951).
  13. I. Nimeroff, J. R. Rosenblatt, and M. C. Dannemiller, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 475 (1961).
  14. The tristimulus values in Judd's 1949 modified system are given for a wavelength range of 360 to 770 mµ, inclusive. We have used the range 390 to 700 mµ, inclusive, which is the range in the visible region of our GE spectrophotometer. This spectrophotometer can also be used to 1000 mµ by changing cams, but it was decided not to extend our measurements to 770 mµ, since the spectrophotometric curves of anatase and rutile are almost flat in this region and trial computations indicated that no significant changes were introduced by such truncation.
  15. W. F. Dixon and F. J. Massey, Jr., Introduction to Statistical Analysis (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 294.
  16. L. G. Glasser and D. J. Troy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 652 (1952).
  17. L. G. Glasser, Congrès Fédération des Associations de Techniciens des Industries des Peintures et Encres d'Imprimiere de l'Europe Continentale (FATIPEC) 111, 47 (1955).
  18. R. S. Hunter, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. No. 429 (1942).
  19. The term, "accessory blue filter," is used to designate the special filter designed for this conversion.
  20. "Spectral Sensitivity Characteristic of Phototube Having S-4 Response," tube department, Radio Corporation of America, Data Sheet 92CM-6152R7 (1947).
  21. "Glass Color Filters," Corning Glass Works, Optical Sales Department, Form No. c-248 Rev. 5-11-53.
  22. For convenience the following convention is used: G, R, B, and XB are the Colormaster differential calorimeter reflectances of a sample with the green, red, blue, and accessory blue filters, respectively.
  23. The transmittance of the yellow component of this filter is critical; for most satisfactory results it has been necessary to provide Corning Glass Works with a satisfactory sample and instructions that it be matched to within ±l mµ in the cutoff part of the curve. In use the two components are not cemented together, but are clamped on the filter wheel of the colorimeter with black paper spacers between the components to avoid formation of Newton's rings.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited