Angular conditions of incidence are described as hemispherical, conical, or directional; the same adjectives are used to describe the angular conditions of collection. This classification of angular conditions leads to nine kinds of reflectance; symbols for them are proposed in which 2π, <i>g</i>, and θ<sub>0</sub>, Ø<sub>0</sub> refer to hemispherical, conical, and directional incidence, 2π, <i>g</i>′, and θ<sub><i>r</i></sub>,Ø<sub><i>r</i></sub> refer to the corresponding kinds of collection. Use of the perfectly reflecting mirror and of the perfectly reflecting diffuser as reference standards in reflectometry is discussed. Three of the nine reflectance ratios, specimen to perfect diffuser, in which the collection is directional have already been named radiance [luminance] factor. It is proposed to differentiate them by angular condition of incidence. It is also proposed to name the other six ratios: reflectance factor qualified by the same adjectives identifying the type of incidence and collection as are used for reflectance. The interrelationships of these 18 concepts are shown both by formulas for computing one from another and by diagrams indicating the process (integration, summation, averaging, equality, reflectance of perfect difluser, and reciprocity) by which values of one concept may be computed from those of another.
© 1967 Optical Society of America
DEANE B. JUDD, "Terms, Definitions, and Symbols in Reflectometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 445-450 (1967)