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Journal of the Optical Society of America

Journal of the Optical Society of America

  • Vol. 58, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 1968
  • pp: 1313–1315

Origin of Dark Noise in Human Foveal Vision

RICHARD SREBRO and ALLAN JAFFE  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA, Vol. 58, Issue 9, pp. 1313-1315 (1968)

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RICHARD SREBRO and ALLAN JAFFE, "Origin of Dark Noise in Human Foveal Vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1313-1315 (1968)

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  1. R. D. Luce, in Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, R. D. Luce, R. G. Bush, and E. Galanter, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963); H. B. Barlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634 (1956); J. Nachmias and R. M. Steinman, 53, 1206 (1963); 54, 554E (1964).
  2. Physiological sources of dark noise have been found in the spontaneous discrete events of the photoreceptor of Limulus [M. Fuortes and S. Yeandle, J. Gen. Physiol. 47, 443 (1964)] and in the maintained spike activity of the ganglion cell of the dark-adapted cat's retina [H. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 137, 327 (1956)]. However, the relationship of these observations to psychophysical measurements is uncertain.
  3. J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, Science 150, 1477 (1965).
  4. W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 645 (1965). An increase of the "quantuim-to-spike ratio" following light adaptation weas reported by Barlow [H. B. Barlow, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539 (1966)] in the ganglion-cell output of the cat's retina. This represents a physiological change of G resulting from adaptation.
  5. The luminance of the adapting beam was low enough to avoid after-images. The fixation annulus was eliminated in some light-adaptation experiments without appreciable effect on the results.
  6. Occasionally, detected flashes appeared which were described as "partly green, partly red" (spatially separated) and two observers reported temporally separated red-green single flashes. These mixed events were infrequent and were usually associated with a dominant hue. Subjects were instructed to name them according to the dominant hue. The mixed events probably relate to the 15′ target size and 30-msec flash duration used. They did not appear when the target size was 1′ and flash duration 1 rnsec. There were also considerably fewer white flashes when the larger target size and flash duration were used.
  7. Correlation coefficients between the percent of flashes correctly detected and reported as green and percent of false positive responses called green in any session were not significant.

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