A general theory of optical-aberration tests, encompassing many well-known practical tests, is presented, utilizing the formalism of spatial filtering, employing coherent illumination. The basic diffraction integrals of the Ronchi-grating test, Foucault knife-edge test, phase Foucault knife-edge test, and the Zernike phase-contrast test are derived. Typical situations have been analyzed and numerical results are shown and discussed.
RICHARD BARAKAT, "General Diffraction Theory of Optical Aberration Tests, from the Point of View of Spatial Filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1432-1439 (1969)